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Bioenergetics, Enzymes and ATP Notes.docx

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Biology 1202B
Richard Gardiner

Bioenergetics, Enzymes & ATP Bioenergetics  The study of energy in living systems (environments) and the organisms (plants and animals) that utilize it Potential Energy  Energy that matter occupies because of its location, arrangement, or position --> energy of position  o Water behind a dam o Chemical energy (gas) Kinetic Energy  Energy in the process of doing work --> energy of motion  o Heat o Light energy  Three systems…  o Isolated system - does not exchange matter or energy with its surroundings o  Thermos bottom o Closed system - exchanges energy with its surroundings o  Planet Earth o Open system - exchanges both energy and mater with its surroundings o  Ecosystem, cell, plant, animals First Law of Thermodynamics  Energy cannot be created or destroyed but only converted to other forms  This means that the amount of energy in the universe is constant Second Law of Thermodynamics  All energy transformation are inefficient because every reaction results in an increase in entropy and the loss of usable energy as heat  o Entropy - the amount of disorder in a system Biological Work…Why?  Biosynthesis  o Nucleotides -> DNA/RNA o Amino acids -> Proteins o CO2+H2O -> CHO (glucose)  Transport  o Passive (spontaneous) doe snot require energy o Active requires energy Biological Work  Free energy - the part of a system's total energy that can perform work when the temperature is uniform as in a living cell  o Represented by G o  Two components…   H (system's total energy)  S (the entropy of the system)  G=H-TS  The change in free energy in a system changing from one state to another is symbolized by dG  o dG = Gf - Gi o dG = dH - TdS o Change in free energy between reactants and products Entropy  Entropy measures energy that is longer available to perform useful work within the current environment  Can also be understood as the "quality" of heat flowing between two bodies  One of the ideas involved in the concept is that nature tends from order to disorder in isolated systems Endergonic Reactions  dG > 0  Chemical reactions that requires a net input of energy  o Photosynthesis - CO2 + H2O -> C6H
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