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Summary 1-Origin of Life.doc

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Biology 1202B
Richard Gardiner

Origin of Life Summary Characteristics of Living Things 1. Tend to be complex and highly organized 2. Ability to take energy from the environment and change it to other forms 3. Tend to be homeostatic – regulate bodies/internal structures 4. Respond to stimuli 5. Reproduce by making copies 6. Tend to grow and develop 7. Adapt/Evolve with changes in the external environment Panspermia • Asteroids/comets could have brought organic matter to earth (can’t be sure it is not a product of some geological process rather that an actual fossilized structure) • Universe formed 15 billion years ago, Earth 4.6, oldest fossils 3.5, and Eukaryotic fossils 2.2 Spontaneous Generation • Louis Pasteur living matter cannot generate spontaneously from non-living matter • Conditions were much different on early Earth (boiled beef broth experiment) Cell Theory 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. The cell is the smallest unit with all the properties of life 3. Cells arise only from growth and division of preexisting cells Oparin-Haldane • Organic molecules could be made in the absence of life (energy from UV light, lightning, volcanoes) o Early Earth had a reducing atmosphere (lots of electrons for reactions to occur) Early Atmosphere • Reducing atmosphere (no free oxygen), free hydrogen and hydride (CH4, NH3, H2O), energy from sun and lightning (no ozone layer), hotter surface temperature Miller-Urey Experiment • Used: boiling water, continuous spark from electrodes, gases (CH , N4 , H 3, 2 ) 2 and a condenser • Obtained: urea, amino acids, lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, nucleotides o Proved that reducing atmosphere is probable for origin of life Polymers • Condensation reactions – when components of water molecules are removed o Peptide bonds with amino acids/phosphodiester bonds with nucleotides • Polysaccharides (F20-F23) – monosacchaarides linked together (glucose, ribose, etc.) • Proteins (F24-F28) – amino acids (20) • Nucleic Acids (F29-31) – Nucleotides (5) Catalysts • Molecules adsorb to clay mineral particles (become concentrated/stick to surface particles) • Clay particles may have been used
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