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2012.02.11 - Bio 1202 Lecture 1 Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Biology 1202B
Gardiner/ Murphy

Lecture 1  Characteristics of Living Things: o They are complex and highly organized o They have the ability to take energy from the environment and change it from one form to another o They tend to be homeostatic – can regulate their body and other internal structures o They respond to stimuli o They reproduce o They grow and develop o They adapt and evolve in step with external changes in their environment  Drake Equation – calculates the probability of other planets having living civilizations in our galaxy  Universe formed 15 billion years ago (Big Bang) o Galaxies formed from stars, dust and gas o Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago o Oldest fossils formed 3.5 billion years ago o Eukaryotic fossils formed 2.2 billion years ago  Cell Theory: o All organisms are composed of one or more cells o The cell is the smallest unit that has all the properties of life o Cells arise only from the growth and division of pre-existing cells  Oparin/Haldane – organic molecules could be made in the absence of life o Early atmosphere was a reducing atmosphere (no free oxygen) o But, there was free hydrogen and hydrides (Ex4 CH ) o There was lots of energy from electric discharges in storms and solar energy (no ozone) o Also, the Earth’s surface temperature was probably hotter than today o These all allow lots of reactions to occur  Miller/Urey Experiment – simulated conditions similar to ones believed to be in the early atmosphere o Obtained urea, amino acids, nucleotides and formic/lactic/acetic acids  Panspermia – asteroids and comets could have brought organic matter to Earth  Amino acids changing to polypeptides could have occurred when dry or highly concentrated monomers are heated o Condensation reactions (when components of water molecules are removed) create peptide bonds between amino acids or phosphodiester bonds form between nucleotides  Polymers o Polysaccharides (Ex: glucose) o Proteins (Ex: amino acids) o Nucleic acids (E
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