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summ lec 1 (murphy).doc

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1202B
Professor
Shauna Burke
Semester
Winter

Description
Dr. Murphy - Summary of Lecture Notes LECTURE 1:DNA STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 13 Human Genome: - in a cell ( nuclear nucleotides that are linear 23 from each donor) 1952 Hershey & Chase: Discovered that DNA was the inherited material and note proteins 1953 Watson, Crick & Franklin: DNA structure double helix Rosalin Franklin: did all the research to determine the structure of DNA 1956: Tijo and Levan discovered that there was 46 chromosome in a human cell 1963: Margi and Sylvan discovered MtDNA ( own DNA ) DNA Structure: rosalind franklin xray defraction, beams of xray hitting the crystal with the DNA in it, it refracted creating an image, put the photographic plate behind it and captured the shape, revealed the afternoon that the dna makes = helical structures, died of cancer Nucleotides = Building Blocks of nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) 5 carbon, deoxyribose (missing an oxygen at one point ) * side : a sugar and a base without the phosphate Nitrogenous Bases: G,A,T,Uracil,C DNA & RNA are made of dNTP = deoxynucleoside triphosphate i.e. dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP , dUTP * c2 on DNA doesnt have an OH group = more stable than RNA - Nucleotide = Nucleoside + phosphate deoxyadenosine, deoxyguano- sine, deoxythymidine, deoxyuridine, deoxy- cyti- dine - There are four different types of dNTP (de- oxynucleoside triphosphate) ie, dATP. dGTP, dCTP, dTTP c1 base gets added , c3 OH group/ new nucleotides c5: is where the phosphates are “ hang off” 5’ holds the phosphates 3’ OH group DNA: 5’ ---> 3’ - sugar phosphate backbone, bases are hanging towards the right, because of the structure of 5’ to 3’ - phosphate bridges 3’ to 5 ‘ from 2 different sugars - that bond is known as 3’-5’ phosphodiester bond - fused rings of carbon and nitrogen = purines and pyramidines ( longer word, smaller structure) sugar phosphate back bone = ribbon bases = beads “ rungs of the ladders” - they are antiparallel when they come together ie. 5’ to 3‘and 3’ to 5’ and double stranded Chargaffs rule: amt purines = amt of pyramidines Two polynucleotide chains twist around each other in a right handed way Difference between right & left-handed he- lices: Dr. Murphy - Summary of Lecture Notes If you move along a helix in the direction of your right hand's thumb, and the helix turns in the direction of your right hand's fingers, then it's a right-handed helix, Picture the helix vertical; if the front strands move from the lower left to the upper right, then it is a right-handed helix. Watson & Crick’s model for DNA replication • Complementary base pairing in the DNA double helix. A pairs with T. G pairs with C •The two chains unwind & separate •Each “old” strand is a template for the addition •of complementary bases.. •The result is two DNA helices that are exact •copies of the parental DNA molecule with •one “old” strand & one “new”
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