Class Notes (836,424)
Canada (509,786)
Biology (6,816)
Bob Larose (15)


3 Pages
Unlock Document

Biology 1225
Bob Larose

Vitamins  Often interact with enzymes to speed up metabolic reactions  Most are essential (must be absorbed from food)  Only vitamin D (skin) and vitamin K (gut bacteria) are non-essential (produced by body)  Fat soluble o Vitamin A: vision, growth, reproduction o Vitamin D: regulates calcium levels, bone formation o Vitamin K: blood clotting  Water soluble o Vitamin C: antioxidant, wound healing, synthesis of adrenaline, bone formation o Vitamin B12 and folic acid: cell division (low levels cause anaemia)  Supplements o Vitamins A and D (fat soluble)  Cannot be excreted from body  Only small amounts are needed, rest stored within liver  Excessive intake from supplements can cause liver damage o Vitamin C (and other water soluble vitamins)  Not stored - regular intake required for good health  Excess excreted in urine o In the UK, supplements are only useful for  Pregnant women (growth)  Elderly (less efficient absorption, less appetite) Mineral Ions  Sodium: water balance (maintain osmotic pressure)  Chloride: maintain osmotic pressure, required for acid production in stomach  Potassium: abnormal levels cause abnormal heart rhythms  Calcium: bones and teeth, regulation of heartbeat, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve and brain function (important for synapses)  Phosphate: nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, bones and teeth  Iron: haemoglobin (low levels cause anaemia) and myoglobin formation Healthy diet  EAT fruit and vegetables o 5 portions of fruit each day o Contain fibres (prevent constipation) o Contain vitamins (antioxidants)  MORE starch than sugar o Starch (pasta, rice, brown bread) releases glucose more slowly o Food with a high GI (food rich in sugar) is linked to obesity  RESTRICT salt and fats o Heart disease is caused by a diet  High in fat - i
More Less

Related notes for Biology 1225

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.