Biology 2217B Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Cinnamomum Verum, Ginger, Black Pepper

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
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Lecture 17 herbs and spices
Spice Latin for species meaning good or merchandise
- Used for: magical rites, purification and embalming, fragrance, flavouring,
food preservatives, curatives, vermifuge (kills intestinal worms)
Herbs leaves or seeds from temperate origins
Incenses plant substances that releases fragrances
- Valued commodity used as currency sometimes
- Rome held ransom for metals and 3000 lb of pepper
- Early explorers, Columbus, Magellan and Ferdinand risked lives to discover
faster routes to spice producing countries
-
- Spice influence:
o Hyp: species enhance flavour; Argument: do enhance flavour; why do
we like them? What cultural preferences?
o Hyp: spices cool body by perspiration; Arg; most spices don’t do this
o Hyp: spices used to preserve food; Arg: do have antimicrobial effects
Recipes average meat recipes 3.9 species, 93% of all recipes require spices
- Number of species used in recipes range from 0 to 12
Herbs and spices:
- Scents and flavours due to essential oils
o Secondary compounds, most isoprenoids (terpenes)
- Natural plant function & pollinator disperser attraction
- Plant protection from herbivores and microbes (antimicrobial)
Chemosensory abilities
- Taste on the palate and the pharynx
- Odour volatile chemicals sensations experienced by olfactory
- Flavour composed of taste odour and temperature
Taste
- Cool minty (trigeminal nerves)
- Dry astringents (tannins)
o Nerves sense drying of mucous coating of mouth, maybe denaturing
- Temperature greatly effect impression of food
- Any flavours beyond this is listed in olfactory in nasal aromatic compounds
o Aromatic bc they give aroma and are volatile
- terpenes many varieties of isoprene
o Secondary metabolites
o Act as anti herbivory and anti infection, concentrated in leaves
flowers or fruits
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Tastes sweet = sugars; salty = NaCL, Li, K; Sour = acidic H+; Bitter = quinine
- Eastern hemisphere Umani amino acids, MSG; Piquance chilis, capcaisin
History of spice trade
- Greeks/romans traded with arabs for orient spices, romans bypassed by
doing directly fal of rome led to end in spice trade w/ europe and dark age
- Portuguese, Dutch and British monopolized spice trade
- COlombus found NA while looking for spice trade route in india
- Cinnamon has been around the longest, killed most? Dutch and Portuguese
war
Herbs categorized
Spices have no main families, tropical and rare
Lecture 17 herbs 2
Allium - Alliaceae
cepa onions modified leaves
sativum garlic
porrum leeks
schoenoprasum chives
sulphur compounds, after eating transported to lungs for disposal
onions and garlic cultivated for a long time, sulphur inhibits bacteria and
fungi
Liameaceae - MINT FAMILY
- Peppermint most cultivated
- Medicines, toothpaste, mouthwash cooking
- Rosemary rosmarinus officianalis
o Native to mediterranian
o Shrubby plant with needle leaves
o Used in teas
o Extracted oils in perfumes
o Flavouring of foods
- Lavender lavandula
o Flowers pink
o Flavour vinegars and jams, perfumes
o Essential oils linked to abnormal breast development
o Endocrine disrupter
Apaciaeae parsley family
- pertoselinum crispum parsley
- most common in NA
- rich in vit A and D
- Antheum graveolens dill
o Dried and fresh Aerial parts used
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Document Summary

Spice latin for species meaning good or merchandise. Used for: magical rites, purification and embalming, fragrance, flavouring, food preservatives, curatives, vermifuge (kills intestinal worms) Herbs leaves or seeds from temperate origins. Valued commodity used as currency sometimes. Rome held ransom for metals and 3000 lb of pepper. Early explorers, columbus, magellan and ferdinand risked lives to discover faster routes to spice producing countries. What cultural preferences: hyp: spices cool body by perspiration; arg; most spices don"t do this, hyp: spices used to preserve food; arg: do have antimicrobial effects. Recipes average meat recipes 3. 9 species, 93% of all recipes require spices. Number of species used in recipes range from 0 to 12. Scents and flavours due to essential oils: secondary compounds, most isoprenoids (terpenes) Natural plant function & pollinator disperser attraction. Plant protection from herbivores and microbes (antimicrobial) Taste on the palate and the pharynx. Odour volatile chemicals sensations experienced by olfactory. Flavour composed of taste odour and temperature.

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