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Lecture 17

Lecture 17&18 - herbs.docx

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Biology 2217B
Richard Gardiner

Lecture 17 herbs and spices Spice – Latin for species meaning good or merchandise - Used for: magical rites, purification and embalming, fragrance, flavouring, food preservatives, curatives, vermifuge (kills intestinal worms) Herbs – leaves or seeds from temperate origins Incenses – plant substances that releases fragrances - Valued commodity – used as currency sometimes - Rome held ransom for metals and 3000 lb of pepper - Early explorers, Columbus, Magellan and Ferdinand risked lives to discover faster routes to spice producing countries - - Spice influence: o Hyp: species enhance flavour; Argument: do enhance flavour; why do we like them? What cultural preferences? o Hyp: spices cool body by perspiration; Arg; most spices don’t do this o Hyp: spices used to preserve food; Arg: do have antimicrobial effects Recipes – average meat recipes – 3.9 species, 93% of all recipes require spices - Number of species used in recipes range from 0 to 12 Herbs and spices: - Scents and flavours due to essential oils o Secondary compounds, most isoprenoids (terpenes) - Natural plant function & pollinator disperser attraction - Plant protection from herbivores and microbes (antimicrobial) Chemosensory abilities - Taste – on the palate and the pharynx - Odour – volatile chemicals sensations experienced by olfactory - Flavour – composed of taste odour and temperature Taste - Cool – minty (trigeminal nerves) - Dry – astringents (tannins) o Nerves sense drying of mucous coating of mouth, maybe denaturing - Temperature – greatly effect impression of food - Any flavours beyond this is listed in olfactory in nasal – aromatic compounds o Aromatic bc they give aroma and are volatile - terpenes – many varieties of isoprene o Secondary metabolites o Act as anti herbivory and anti infection, concentrated in leaves flowers or fruits Tastes – sweet = sugars; salty = NaCL, Li, K; Sour = acidic H+; Bitter = quinine - Eastern hemisphere – Umani – amino acids, MSG; Piquance – chilis, capcaisin History of spice trade - Greeks/romans traded with arabs for orient spices, romans bypassed by doing directly – fal of rome led to end in spice trade w/ europe and dark age - Portuguese, Dutch and British monopolized spice trade - COlombus found NA while looking for spice trade route in india - Cinnamon has been around the longest, killed most? Dutch and Portuguese war Herbs – categorized Spices – have no main families, tropical and rare Lecture 17 – herbs 2 Allium - Alliaceae – cepa – onions – modified leaves – sativum – garlic – porrum – leeks – schoenoprasum – chives – sulphur compounds, after eating transported to lungs for disposal – onions and garlic cultivated for a long time, sulphur inhibits bacteria and fungi Liameaceae - MINT FAMILY - Peppermint most cultivated - Medicines, toothpaste, mouthwash – cooking - Rosemary – rosmarinus officianalis o Native to mediterranian o Shrubby plant with needle leaves o Used in teas o Extracted oils in perfumes o Flavouring of foods - Lavender – lavandula o Flowers – pink o Flavour vinegars and jams, perfumes o Essential oils linked to abnormal breast development o Endocrine disrupter Apaciaeae – parsley family - pertoselinum crispum – parsley - most common in NA - rich in vit A and D - Antheum graveolens – dill o Dried and fresh Aerial parts used Brassicaceae – mustard family o Contain sulphurs compounds o Horse radish – amoracia rusticana o Taproot – middle ages o Looses potency quick Spices - cinnamon – cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicium o True cinnamon o Sri lanka major producer o Oil is in the bark, evergreen native to Sri Lanka, laurel family o Astringent, stimulant, digestive o Oldest and most valuable o Mostly carbs and fibre – healthy - Cassia – cinnamomum cassia o Cinnamon used used in NA, entire bark used o Sri Lankan origin but spicier o Buds are also a spice, resemble cloves - Pepper – piper nigrum – piperine active chemical (alkaloid) o India Malaysia, sri lanka- Most widely traded spice o Grows on a climbing vine, berries picked off and pith cooked o Pain relfied, flu, colds, aches - Cloves - Syzygium aromaticum – dicot – Mytle family o Ancient or orient – Indonesia – Spice islands o Spice Islands = Maluku, Zanzibar, archipelago o Dried flower buds o Best used whole o Oil (eugenol) used as flavoring o Clearing agent - Ginger – Zingiber Officinale - medicinal, anticancer, and antioxidant o Most widely used spices - rhizome o Treat upset stomach o Large producers – China, India, Nigeria, Thailand  Can be grown in NA o Perennial native to ASIA tropical o Name – Sanskrit – body like horn – Stingra-vera - Tumeric – Curcuma longa - rhizome o Member of ginger family – rhizome o ASIA perennial – tropical - Saffron – crocus sativa – Iris family o Flow
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