Biology 2217B Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Carbohydrate, Blood Sugar, Galactose

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Nutrients: macronutrients - required in large amounts, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, micronutrients - required in small amounts, vitamins, minerals, calories (a measure of energy) needed, 1,600 kilocalories for women, 2,200 kilocalories for men. Sugars and complex carbohydrates: carbohydrates can be chemically classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, based on the number of sugar units in the molecule. Polysaccharides: complex carbohydrates, composed of hundreds to thousands of individual sugar units, glucose is usually the only monosaccharide present, different numbers of glucose and different arrangements. Starch is the storage form of glucose found in plants. Essential amino acids: the 9 amino acids that must come from the diet, they can not be stored by the body. Complete proteins: contain all the essential amino acids and in the right proportions, proteins derived from animals are usually complete, proteins derived from plants are usually incomplete, only 10% of our diet should be protein.

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