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Mitosis & Cell Cycle Control.docx

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Biology 2382B
Jessica Kelly

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Lecture 78MitosisCell Cycle Control Chp 18 p 781783 Chp 20 p 847853 p 858863 p 887Function of the Cell Cycle Essential mechanism by which all living things reproduce and pass on genetic information to next generation of cells Ensures that DNA in each chromosome is faithfully replicated to produce 2 copies Replicated chromosomes must be accurately distributed segregated to 2 genetically identical daughter cells Coordination of growth increase in cell mass with divisionCheckpoints exist during the cycle to ensure that each daughter cell has the same full set of chromosomes segregated properly and has grown sufficiently that the daughter cells will be viable upon divisionresearch has shown these mechanisms are highly conserved among all eukaryotic cellsThe Cell CycleIts PhasesCell cyclethe ordered sequence of events in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes and divides into two genetically identical cells4 PhasesG1SG2InterphaseCell increases in sizeIn M phase mitosis most dramatic events can be observed microscopicallyAll Cells are generated from preexisting cellsDifficult to determine where a cell is in interphase but easy when in Mitosis1 Phases of The Cell CycleFACScan be used to quantify proportion of cells are in each cell cycle phaseThis is achieved by measuring the intensity of fluorescence from the Hoescht stain bound to DNAat the end of S phase cell has double the DNA and therefore fluorescence intensity is also doubledG1 being the longer phase of the cell cycle means that more cells are likely to be in this phase of the cell cycleG Gap 1 Phase 1Generalized growth and metabolism of the cellWhere most cells arrest when not dividing ie enter G o Variable length 11 hours in mammalian cellsS Synthesis Phase DNA replication occurs 68 hoursCell stops actively metabolizing during this pahaseG2 Gap 2 Phase Preparation for chromosome segregation and cell division 4 hoursM Mitosis PhaseChromatin condensationNuclear envelope breakdown retracts into ERSister chromatids attach to mitotic spindle which duplicatesSegregation of chromatidsDecondense and reformation of intact nucleiCytokinesis 1 hourG1 being the longer phase of the cell cycle means that more cells are likely to be in this phase of the cell cycleSome Eukaryotic CellCycle Times2
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