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Lecture 1

Biology 2382B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Hayflick Limit, Contact Inhibition, George Otto Gey

Course Code
BIOL 2382B
Jessica Kelly

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1/11/2016 6:00:00 PM
Cell biology
is an academic discipline that studies cells, the basic structural,
functional and biological unit of all known organisms
reasons to study cells
o part of the core in biology
o fundamental unit of life
o storehouse for thousands of genes
o determine what is normal so we can fix the abnornmal
cell biologists look at cell structure, organelles and membrane
trafficking, cell cycle and division/death, movement, signalling,
What is a cell?
- different cells have
different organelles
- all cells have nucleus
and mitochondria
-Main goal: how
macromolecules work
together, cells are
found in tissues
ex. liver has different types of cells, we need to understand how these cell
works autonomously (on their own)
How we study cells?
Hypothesis driven experiments
First, you’ll need the tools & methods to isolate and maintain cells
in vitro (in glass), to know how to view cells and what to look for,
how to separate cell organelles and finally, how to identify and
study how proteins drive a cell biological process.
Once you have the tools, we can start to ask, and more
importantly begin to answer, biological questions pertaining to our
~ 75 trillion cells.
You want to isolate an individual cell from complex tissues and grow
them under controlled conditions and be able to control cell
division, metabolism, etc
Cell Culture
find more resources at
find more resources at

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is the technique used to grow cells or tissues outside the organism
under strictly controlled conditions.
Cells are isolated from any tissue by breaking down the cell-cell and
cell-matrix interactions (use mechanical fragmentation, trypsin,
Cell-cell adhesions and cell matrix adhesions. You secrete lots of
proteins outside of the cell- there are proteins called collagen
(outside of the cells which cells stick to)
Mechanical Fragmentation- take a tissue and grind it and try to
polarize it, even though you will damage a lot but you can get a
living cell out of it
o Trypsin- protease- degrades proteins, cells are held
together by proteins- either by matrix proteins or cell surface
proteins. So if you add trypsin it will break apart all cell-cell
and cell-matrix interactions, it will clear all the proteins that
holds these cells in tissue. If you leave trypsin for to long, you
have to control it or it can degrade the cells
o EDTA- calcium chelator- it binds to calcium and removes it
form the solution. Calcium is essential to cell-cell adhesion,
one of the ways cells stick to each other is by calcium, so
adding EDTA removes calcium so that the adhesions can
break apart.
Most tissues have multiple cell types, you need to know how to
separate liver cells, from blood cells, etc- another section.
Cells are supplied with proper nutrients in order to survive (amino
acids, minerals, vitamins, salts, glucose, etc.), serum (insulin,
growth factors) and grown usually at 37oC in a CO2 incubator.
For cells to survive and renew, you need to add growth
o Serum
Part of the blood
composed of many essential nutrients for the cells
ex. Insulin- need this to get sugar/glucose in the
find more resources at
find more resources at
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