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Ecology Notes

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Western University
Biology 2483A
Hugh Henry

Ecology Notes Sept. 18/12 - The biosphere is the zone of life on earth. It is mostly restricted to the surface of the earth. It is located between the lithosphere (earths surface crust and upper mantle) and the troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere). Biomes are large-scale biological communities shaped by the physical environment, particularly climate. Biomes are categorized by dominant plant forms, not taxonomic relationships. They are not characterized by animals because animals are mobile. They can avoid local conditions by moving around and are more adept at surviving by choosing a more favourable microclimate. Plants cant move around, so categorizing biomes based on them is better and more accurate. Plants occupy sites for a long time and are good indicators of the physical environment, reflecting climatic conditions and disturbances. - Terrestrial biomes are characterized by growth forms of the dominant plants, such as leaf deciduousness (seasonal shedding of leaves) or succulence (think, leathery leaves, development of fleshy water storage tissues). The growth form of a plant is an evolutionary response to the environment. - Plant growth forms: Deciduous trees Environment is moist, seasonally warm/cool on fertile soils or warm and seasonally wet/dry. Cacti and shrubs, succulent stems or leaves Environment is dry, seasonally hot/cool. Needle-leaved evergreen trees (retain photosynthetic tissues year-round) Environment is moist, seasonally warm/cool or cool/cold on infertile soils. Grasses, sedges (grow from the base of their leaves, can tolerate cold conditions by sitting under snow) Environment is moist, seasonally warm/cool, with fire. Evergreen broad-leaved trees (carry out photosynthesis year- round in tropical regions) Environment is wet, warm year-round. Forbs (broad-leaved herbaceous/nonwoody plants) Environment is seasonally cool/cold. Sclerophyllous shrubs (have tough, leathery leaves) Environment is seasonally dry/moist and warm/cool. - Plants have taken many forms in response to selection pressures of the terrestrial environment such as aridity, extreme temperatures, intense solar radiation, grazing by animals, and crowding. Similar plant growth forms can be found in similar climatic zones on different continents, even though the plants are not genetically related. The evolution of similar growth forms among distantly related species in response to similar selection pressures is called convergence. - The locations of terrestrial biomes are correlated with the variations in temperature and precipitation. Temperature has direct physiological effects on plant growth form. Precipitation and temperature act together to influence water availability and water loss by plants. Water availability and soil temperature determine the supply of nutrients in the soil. Soil microbes slow down when the temperature increases and soil is dry. Biomes vary with mean annual temperature and precipitation. These two factors predict biome distributions fairly well, but this does not account for seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation. Climatic extremes are important in determining species distributions. Tropical rainforests are found in warm and wet places. Deserts are found in places with low precipitation and many different temperatures. Tundra is found in cold and dry places. Temperate deciduous forests are found in places with moderate precipitation and temperatures. Trees in deciduous forests lose their leaves because of the cold. - Global biome distributions: The potential distributions of terrestrial biomes differ from their actual distributions due to human activity. Human activities influence the distribution of biomes. Land use change is the conversion of land to agriculture, logging, resource extraction, and urban development. The potential and actual distributions of biomes are markedly different. We live in the temperate deciduous forest biome, and this biome is also found in Europe and parts of Asia. This biome has been affected by human activity converted to agriculture farmland. It is still considered deciduous forest because trees would still grow here if we didnt affect it. Temperate grassland and tropicalseasonal forest biomes have also been affected. The least affected biomes are tundra, boreal forest, and desert. - There are nine major terrestrial biomes. Climate diagrams show the characteristic seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation at a representative location in that biome. - Tropical rainforests: Are found between 10 N and S. There is low pressure here. Tropical rainforests experience warm, seasonally invariant temperatures and abundant precipitation. Plants grow continuously throughout the year. Tropical rainforests contain high plant biomass and high diversity contains about 50% of earths species. This biome occurs in Central and South America, Africa, Australia, and Southeast Asia. This biome is characterized by broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees. Light is a key factor in determining the vegetation. Plants must grow very tall above their neighbours or they must adjust to low light levels. Emergent trees rise above the canopy. The canopy consists of leaves of evergreen trees. Lianas (woody vines) and epiphytes (plants that grow on tree branches) use the canopy and emergent trees for support. Understory trees grow in the shade of the canopy, and shrubs and forbs (broad-leaved herbaceous plants) occupy the forest floor. It is dark under the canopies. Tropical rainforests are disappearing due to logging and conversion to pasture and croplands. About half of the tropical rainforest biome has been altered by deforestation. The recovery of rainforests is uncertain. Soils are nutrient-poor and recovery of nutrient supplies may take a very long time. - Tropical seasonal forests and savannas: Is found at the tropics (23.5 N and S). Band of low pressure shifts up and down. Rainfall is more seasonal here with pronounced wet and dry seasons associated with shifts/movement in the ITCZ. There is water stress/shortages in the summer months. The temperature is stable and is warm all the time. In this biome there are shorter trees, lower tree densities, and deciduousness in dry seasons (trees drop leaves during the dry season). There are more grasses and shrubs and fewer trees relative to rainforests. Fires promote the establishment of savannas, w
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