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Biology 2485B - Lec 6.docx

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Biology 2485B
Ben Rubin

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Lec 6 Jan 28, 2014 Water • 97.5% of water is held in the ocean o 2.5% is held in fresh water sources • Hydrological cycle – measure in cubic km 3 o Residence time – average amount of time one molecule remains in one  reservoir  Low Turnover rate and big volume = high residence time  Low fluxes = high residence time o More water moves from ocean to atmosphere – flux Salt water • Key number – 3.5% average concentration of salt in the ocean o Higher in some condition  ▯colder water is saltier o Cold salt water has a tendency to sink due to higher density • Thermoclines – temperature gradient of water o Surface temperature is warmer in water places o Deep water is colder due to insulation from temperature o Higher salt concentration in cold deep water Upwelling • Wind moving perpendicular to the coast will cause movement of water up o Coriolis effect causes movement of water away from coast Ocean currents • South – currents go counter clockwise • North – currents go clockwise • Rotating currents called Gyres Ocean productivity • Measured by chemical energy produced by pho
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