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Lecture 4

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 2581B
Professor
o
Semester
Winter

Description
Gene$and$Genome$Structure$ Key$Concepts:$ 1.  Central$Dogma$of$Molecular$Biology$ and$GeneGcs$ 2.  Anatomy$of$a$gene$ 3.  Anatomy$of$a$genome$ Morgan$Kleiber$ Biology$2581b$ Dept.$of$Biology$ January$15/16,$2013$ DNA:$InformaGon$Storage$and$Retrieval$ DNA$stores$the$biological$informa4on$to$create$a$diverse$range$of$$ proteins$$cell$types$$4ssues$$organisms$ Advantages:$ •$ease$of$storage$(large$quanGty$of$data)$ •$can$be$copied$reliably$ DNA$stores$informaGon$“digitally”$ $A$$C$$T$$G$ Analogous$to$storing$electronic$data$such$as$music:$ 1000101010101010100010 1010101010010010011101 DigiGzed$informaGon$on$your$ 0101001001010101010101$ computer$hard$drive$ Music$ Sound$waves$ mp3$player$ Central$Dogma$of$Molecular$Biology$and$GeneGcs$ The$Flow$of$InformaGon$in$Biological$Systems$ 5’$ 3’$ 5’$ NYterminus$ CYterminus$ Fig.$1.7$ Nature$Reviews$GeneGcs$3,$43Y52$(January$2002)$ The$Central$Dogma$of$Molecular$Biology$and$GeneGcs$Circa$2012$ What$is$a$gene?$$$ •  The$basic$unit$of$biological$informaGon$ •  A$specific$segment$of$DNA$at$a$specific$ locaGon$in$the$genome$(on$a$region$of$a$ chromosome)$that$serves$as$a$unit$of$ funcGon$ •  Encodes$RNA$or$protein$ Anatomy$of$a$eukaryoGc$gene$ GT$ AG$ GT$ AG$ regulatory$$ flanking$region$ Exon$$ Exon$1$ 2$ Exon$3$ flanking$region$ 5’$ 5’$UTR$ 3’$UTR$ 3’$ GC$ CAAT TATA$ box$ box$ box$ TranslaGon$$ TranslaGon$ Start$codon$(ATG)$ Stop$codon$ PolyYA$addiGon$ TranscripGon$$ AATAA$ site$ Start$ (TranscripGon$ stop)$ See$Fig.$20.12$ Anatomy$of$a$eukaryoGc$gene$ regulatory$$ flanking$region$ Exon$1$ Exon$$ Exon$3$ 2$ flanking$region$ 5’$ 5’$UTR$ 3’$UTR$ 3’$ GC$ CAAT TATA$ box$ box$ box$ TranslaGon$$ TranslaGon$ AATAA$ PolyYA$ Start$codon$(ATG)$ Stop$codon$ addiGon$site$ transcrip)on+ preYmRNA$ 5’$UTR$ 3’$UTR$ splicing/RNA+processing+ mRNA$ 5’$Cap$Y$’$UTR$ 3’$UTR$ YAAAAAA$ transla)on+ protein$ H2NY$$ YCOOH$$$ See$Fig.$20.12$ 3’$ 5’$ Anatomy$of$a$eukaryoGc$gene$ Coding$strand:$$$ •  $similar$5’$$3’$sequence$as$RNA$ 3’$ •  $Sense$,$nonYtemplate,$or$Crick$strand$ NonYcoding$strand:$$ •  used$as$a$template$to$transcribe$RNA$ •  $AnGsense,$template,$or$Watson$strand$ 3’$ 5’$ 5’$ DNA$coding$strand$ DNA$template$strand$ mRNA$ Genes$between$species$ A$collagen$gene$in$C.+elegans$$ Dystrophin$gene$in$H.+sapiens+ 2.5$Mb$ Primary$transcript$=$~2,500,000$nt$ mRNA$=$~14,$000$nt$ Cohen$&$Muntoni,$Heart$2004;$90:835Y41.$ Fig.$8.27$ DNA,$mRNA,$and$PolypepGde$(a$C.+elegans+collagen$gene)$ Fig.$8.27$ Sequence$to$FuncGon$ Open$Reading$Frame$(ORF):$$ •  $inYframe$sequence$of$DNA$that$starts$with$start$ codon$(ATG)$and$ends$with$any$of$the$three$ terminaGon$(stop)$codons$(TAA,$TAG,$TGA)$ Coding$Sequence$(CDS):$$$ •  $region$of$DNA$that$is$translated$to$form$proteins$$ Fig.$1.7$ The$GeneGc$ Code$ Fig.$1.5$ Sequence$to$FuncGon$ •  The$amino$acid$sequence$of$a$polypepGde$ determines$its$three$dimensional$shape$$ •  Protein$shape$determines$its$biological$funcGon$ Anatomy$of$a$Genome$ What$is$a$genome?$$$ 1. The$sum$total$of$ geneGc$informaGon$in$ a$parGcular$cell$or$ organism$ See$Fig.$1.12$ Anatomy$of$a$Genome$ 16$Mb$ 6200$genes$$ S.+cerevisiae+ 16$chr.$ A.+thaliana+ 125$Mb$ ~25,000$genes$$ 5$chr.$ D.+melanogaster+ 130$Mb$ 13,900$genes$$ 4$chr.$ M.+musculus+ 3000$Mb$ ~25,000$genes$ 20$chr.$ H.+sapiens+ 3.2$Gb$ ~25,000$genes$$
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