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Lecture 13.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 2581B
Professor
Jim Karagiannis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chromosomal Rearrangements Reading MaterialChapter 13 429447chromosome rearrangements deletioninsertionreciprocaltranslocationinversiontranslocationgenome duplicationduplicationtranslocationcompare to Tab 131a WeregoingtotalkaboutlargescalemutationThisslideshowsallthedifferenttypesofmutationsandIalreadyeludedtothefactthatwecanhavereallysmallsinglebasepairmutationsbutwecanalsohavealltheseeffectsonchromosomeduplicationsdeletioninversionstranslocationsWecanalsohaveaffectswhichpertaintowholegenomeslikegenomeduplicationsRearrangementcancomeindifferentsizesanddependingonitssizeweusedifferentmethodstofigureoutwhattheyareandwhattheirconsequencesareThatswhatwelltalkaboutwiththesealterationswhichpertaintochromosomesYoualsoneedtoknowwhatthechromosomeactuallylookslikeWhenpeoplefirststartedlookingatgenomestheyalsodidkaryotypingSotheylookedatthenumberofchromosomesforagivenspecieswhatkindofbendingpatternstheyhadandtheystartedtocomparethemInitiallytherewereparadoxessowhenyoutakeamouseandhumangenomeyoudthinkthattheyrecloselyrelatedspeciessothereshouldbealotofsimilaritiesbetweenthosegenomesbecausetheyreevolutionarilynotthatfarapartsoyouassumethatgeneticallytheyrenotverydifferentThatholdstruethatonthesequencelevelwhenyoulookedatthegenesthetypesandsequencestheywereverysimilarWhatwedidthestainingpatternitlookedliketheywereactuallyquitedifferentWhatkaryotypingisaboutisthatpeoplesortthechromosomesbysizethenstainthemTheyhaveveryparticularstainingpatternsandyoucancomparethemWhatturnedouttobeisthattherewerelotsofdifferencesYoucansortthembysizeanditturnsoutthatthemousehas19chromosomesandhumanshave22plusthenthesexchromosomeineachcaseSOnoteventhenumberofchromosomeswerethesameWhenyoucomparebandingpatternstheycouldntseealotofsimilaritiesThatwasoddbecauseyoudassumethatifyouhadthesamegeneswiththesamesequencesthatyoudhaveasingletypeofchromosomewhichdidntturnouttobetrue
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