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Lecture 15

Biology 2581B Lecture 15: Lecture 15: Genes/Expression pt 2


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2581B
Professor
David R Smith
Lecture
15

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ribosomal RNAs
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Escherichia coli
small subunit ribosomal RNA
E. coli
rRNA
5'
3'
intact
Malaria
mitochondrial
rRNA
fragmented &
scrambled
5'
3'
5'
3'
5'
3'
5'
3'
5'
3'
Gene expression: DNA – RNA!
Organelle genomes – self splice!
Pirkinsus – best!
-"When you express genetic information, in malaria you get all the
information but the final product is fragmented (in pieces) – multiple 3 and 5
prime ends!
-"In malaria – only held together though secondary interactions – so if
examples from nuclear genomes
more on rRNAs
nuclear chromosome
LSU & SSU rRNA genes
intact
LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes
& tandemly repeated (head-to-tail)
repeated 300-400 times
on five different chromosomes
Examples from nuclear genomes!
-"More on rRNAs!
o"Default setting for organization of rRNA in nuclear chromosome you
have an intact linear chromosome and inside that you have LSU and SSU
(sub unit) genes.!
o"Often they are arranged in tandem repeated units!
o"On 5 dierent chromosomes, on each one of those chromes there’s
hundreds of repeats!
o"All these genes are used in translation, so having multiple – mass
production!

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mass production
Euglena “normal” nuclear chromosomes
rRNA genes
located elsewhere
ORGANIZATION & EXPRESSION OF FRAGMENTED RIBOSOMAL RNAs
Plasmodium falciparum (apicomplexan)
= large subunit rRNA = small subunit rRNA
Mitochondrial
Polytomella capuana (green alga)
Diplonema papillatum
(diplonemid)
Plastid
15 12
8 4
transcription
Symbiodinium minutum (dinoflagellate)
6 kb
13 kb
~15
327 kb
~12
7 kb 7 kb
2 ?
1 2 1
2
UUUUUU
transcription
end processing
AAAAAA
1UUUUUU 2AAAAAA
trans-splicing
intact rRNA
5’
3’
3’
5’
5’
3’
fragments joined via
base pairing
Heterocapsa triquetra (dinoflagellate)
2.6 kb
Symbiodinium sp. Clade C3 (dinoflagellate)
chromosome size
number of LSU &
SSU rDNA fragments
3 kb 2.6 kb 2.7 kb
1512~2.5 kb
14 1
11 kb
?
ORGANIZATION & EXPRESSION OF FRAGMENTED RIBOSOMAL RNAs
Plasmodium falciparum (apicomplexan)
= large subunit rRNA = small subunit rRNA
Mitochondrial
Polytomella capuana (green alga)
Diplonema papillatum
(diplonemid)
Plastid
15 12
8 4
transcription
Symbiodinium minutum (dinoflagellate)
6 kb
13 kb
~15
327 kb
~12
7 kb 7 kb
2 ?
1 2 1
2
UUUUUU
transcription
end processing
AAAAAA
1UUUUUU 2AAAAAA
trans-splicing
intact rRNA
5’
3’
3’
5’
5’
3’
fragments joined via
base pairing
Heterocapsa triquetra (dinoflagellate)
2.6 kb
Symbiodinium sp. Clade C3 (dinoflagellate)
chromosome size
number of LSU &
SSU rDNA fragments
3 kb 2.6 kb 2.7 kb
1512~2.5 kb
14 1
11 kb
?
~600 copies/nucleus
fragmented
-Euglena - pretty normal - don't find rRNA genes on nuclear
chromosomes, instead they're encoded on their own small circle mini
chromosomes!
-inside nucleus that mini chrome is in 100s of copies —> polyploid !
-Malaria - fragmented rRNA that has to come together with base pairing!
-- many strategies for producing mass rRNA!
-1. have linear repeating units!
-2. have own chromosome
LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes LSU & SSU rRNA genes

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DNA
nucleus
mitochondrion
DNA
nuclear
chromosomes
DNA
chloroplast
!linear & fragmented
!monoploid
!diploid
!polyploid
mitochondrial &
chloroplast
chromosomes
!linear or circular
!intact or fragmented
!always polyploid
!telomerase
!NO telomerase
Remember !
from Lecture 6
break another misconception…
Euglena - non linear chromosome in nucleus - breaks rule
boring eukaryotic gene expression
lots of genes in nuclear genome
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