Biology 3338A Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Neural Plate, Dishevelled, Notochord

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24 Jan 2015
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RECAP
Nodal related proteins (xnrs - TGF-β family members) are vegetal proteins that are
distributed in a gradient with high concentrations on the dorsal side. Other TGF-β
proteins are also localized in the vegetal half (eg VegT, Vg1)
Nieuwkoop center forms at overlap of TGF-β and β-cat (and others) signals - leads
to transcription of dorsal organizer molecules -> siamois, gsc, others)
dorsal
β-cat
VegT, TGF-β
Localized Dsh GSK-3
= dorsal β-cat
Free GSK-3 β-cat
Nieuwkoop
Dorsal Organizer
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β-cat works with Tcf-3 to express siamois and twin
-they work with TGF-β signals to express “dorsal” genes
goosecoid is essential
in activating other
organizer specific
genes
Goosecoid injected tissues can induce other cells to form axial structures
-autonomously determines dorsal fate of cells expressing it
-enables goosecoid expressing cells to recruit neighbouring cells into dorsal axis
But goosecoid is nuclear - what diffusible
proteins are involved?
What factors does the organizer secrete?
-mRNA is localized in organizer
-injected ectopic gsc results in second axis
-UV treated embryos have decreased gsc
-LiCl treated embryos have increased gsc
-noggin, chordin
-follistatin, cerberus
-frzb, dkk, xnr
Cells that have goosecoid are the dorsal organizer
These cells will involute
Goosecoid is the most important thing at this point
Make the notochord
Take goosecoid and put it into other parts of organizer, will induce dorsal organizer formation and make things more dorsal
Goosecoid is master regulator of dorsal organizer
It is turning on genes
The organizer are secreting factors to make things around it more dorsal including neural tissue
Goosecoid is nuclear
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