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Biology 3436F/G L7 Adaptive Behavior.docx

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Biology 3436F/G
Tom Haffie

L7 Adaptive Behavior Ch 6 Alock’s 9 Edition o Use “fitness benefit” when discussing adaptive ness of behavior Notes  An increase in fitness is relative to other variants of  Some Q on midterm based on stats in lab (mostly 1 st the behavior or no behavior? o Fitness benefit has to be >0 and hopefully lab). Basic questions greater than fitness cost to be adaptive Lab vs. Field Experiments Mobbing Behavior in Black-headed Gulls Advantages of lab experiments:  No weather conditions to control or other 1. Breed in colonies composed of loosely spaced nests on environmental variations ground  Can easily manipulate environment to get effect of 2. When chicks are threatened by a predator, colony enviro on behavior  Get a good estimate of effect of genes members will mob predator and call loudly 3. May distract the predator and save the chich o Genes vs. environment advantages Advantages of field experiment Does mobbing protect eggs and chicks?  More realistic How to test hypothesis:  Can see the actual effects  Unnatural interactive effects of genes vs. environment are avoided (i.e. lab effects) Have to show that there is a fitness benefit to individuals displaying the behavior 1. Place some eggs inside a colony, on border and Eg. Study the effects of predation on multiple-mating in guppies. Study using microsatellite analysis on newborns outside of colony (to get diff # of predators) 2. Measure mobbing behavior intensity in response to potential predator Lab Method: 3. Measure the probability of egg being discovered by  Set up tank w/ male and female guppies, from pop w/ either large or no predation the predator  Allow females to give birth  Genotype (microsat. offspring)  Disadvantages: o Predators aren’t present o Ignores details of water current, refuges, and pop density o Unnatural Field Method  Collect females from many rivers w/ either lager or no predation  Allow females to give birth  Genotype offspring  Eggs were put at 10m distances along a transect  Crow’s aren’t attacked as much the farther away from the colony they are Adaptations and Anti-predator Behaviors  Farthest from colony there is a high success of What is an adaptive behavior predator eating the eggs, this relates to the low  Anything that increases fitness/reproductive success amount of mobbing behavior of an individual  Suggests mobbing behavior does protect checks & o Will spread or be maintained in a pop by eggs from gulls  fitness benefit natural selection  A behavior that is heritable and increases the Does it increase lifetime success? What needs to be survivorship and/or reproductive success of the shown to confirm behavior is adaptive? individual displaying the behavior 1. Ultimately that gulls that mob leave behind more o Increases the # of viable offspring an indiv viable offspring than gulls that do not mob produces in a lifetime 2. Need to show that the increased survivorship of o Lifeti
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