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A species should: reflect morphological distinctiveness reflect evolutionary independence be objective (classify organism to species) be testable be applicable to sexual and asexual forms, cryptic species, fossils make identification easy. Three species concepts: morphological species, biological species, phylogenetic species. Example of species concepts using an insect: msc found 1 species, bsc found 38 species, and psc found 9 species. There is no single answer to how many species there are. In psc, some of the populations clustered together, forming fewer species. Phases of speciation (traditional view): genetic isolation. Sympatric behaviour (same area, but have differences in behaviour so that they never interact or mate). Selection: secondary contact (doesn t have to happen) Reinforcement (come back together/no longer separated, reinforces differences between species. Genetic isolation and divergence can happen simultaneously or not. Genetic isolation in allopatry dispersal: happens when a small group leave the larger population to colonize another area.

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