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Evolution Notes

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Biology 3466B
Yolanda Morbey

Evolution NotesSept 2011 Mutation ratenumber of mutationslocusgenerationnumber of mutationsgenomegenerationThe methods used to quantify mutation rates are population surveys and direct methods using molecular data Hemophilia in the royal family is a mutation of large effect thats passed down through the generations Information about the mutation rate would have been determined by looking at the entire population The mutation rate is 1 in 3000 Mutation accumulation lines are family lines that are freely allowed to acquire mutations Using C elegans a single offspring from the family line was picked and allowed to selffertilize Then a random larva from that generation was picked and allowed to selffertilize and so on To measure mutation rate you need1mutations 2loci or nucleotide sites 3generationsMitochondrial DNA has a higher sitespecific mutation rate than nuclear DNA because mitochondria lack a lot of repair enzymes that the nucleus has for repairing mutations Mutation createsleads to genetic diversityHIV infection pathway The HIV virion encounters a host cell A surface protein on HIV gp120 binds to CD4 and coreceptor CCR5 on the host cell The HIVs RNA genome reverse transcriptase integrase and protease enter the host cell Reverse transcriptase synthesizes HIV DNA from HIVs RNA template Integrase splices HIV DNA into the host genome HIV DNA is transcribed into HIV mRNA This leaves the nucleus and is translated into HIV proteins New virions assemble inside the host cell and bud from the host cells membrane Mutations in the gene encoding the coreceptor render the coreceptor nonfunctional HIV cant bind making the person resistant to HIV CCR5 genotyping steps a survey approach to genotype individuals 1 extract DNA from individuals 2 amplify gene using PCR 3 cut DNA s
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