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Evolution Notes

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Biology 3466B
Yolanda Morbey

Evolution NotesSept 2011 The four major mechanisms of evolution are natural selection genetic drift mutation and migration Population genetics The study of how allele and genotype frequencies change across generation to determine the relative importance of different mechanisms of evolution Allele frequency proportion of alleles in populationGenotype frequency proportion of genotypes in population The life cycle of a population is the adults produce gametes the gametes combine to make zygotes the zygotes develop into juveniles and the juveniles grow up to become the next generation of adults The gametes are the gene pool The punnett square for Aa x Aa involves the segregation of alleles into haploid gametes Each haploid gamete has one allele of each gene Pairing of gametes produces zygotes with particular genotypes To determine the probability of a zygote having a particular genotype the genotype frequency multiply the allele frequencies of that genotype together HardyWeinberg Equilibrium HWE Represents an idealized population There are no evolutionary mechanisms going on The final allele frequencies are the same as the initial allele frequencies If there is no evolution occurring the allele frequencies dont change Example 36 of the adults are producing A gamete genotype is AA and 24 are producing A gamete genotype is Aa so 60 of the gene pool is A Let pfrequency of A1 in populationLet qfrequency of A2 in populationHWE principle1 allele frequencies will not change across generation 2 if allele frequencies are given by p and q genotype frequencies will be given by3pq1 Assumptions of HWE diploid population sexual reproduction no evolution infinitely large population size all individuals survive to reproduce mating is random
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