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The four major mechanisms of evolution are: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. Population genetics: the study of how allele and genotype frequencies change across generation to determine the relative importance of different mechanisms of evolution. Allele frequency: proportion of alleles in population. Genotype frequency: proportion of genotypes in population. The life cycle of a population is: the adults produce gametes, the gametes combine to make zygotes, the zygotes develop into juveniles, and the juveniles grow up to become the next generation of adults. The punnett square for aa x aa involves the segregation of alleles into haploid gametes. Each haploid gamete has one allele (of each gene). Pairing of gametes produces zygotes with particular genotypes. To determine the probability of a zygote having a particular genotype (the genotype frequency), multiply the allele frequencies of that genotype together. Hardy-weinberg equilibrium (hwe): represents an idealized population. The final allele frequencies are the same as the initial allele frequencies.

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