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Germ theory (1858) and theory of natural selection (1859) happened at the same time. John snow mapped deaths and locations of pumps. The broad street pump was causing the cholera, so once it was removed, cholera cleared up. There was an initial decline in tb death rates starting in the early 1900s due to improved housing, sanitation conditions, and nutrition. The final decline in tb was due to antibiotics. Streptomycin and isoniazid were antibiotics that helped to remove tb even more. This represents the impact of the discovery of antibiotics used to treat tb. Flu virus evolution: the influenza a virus has ten genes on eight strands of rna. Neuraminidase (n) and hemagglutinin (h) are surface proteins. They are recognized and remembered by the host immune system. There are five antigenic sites on h that are most important for immune system/host recognition. Mutations in antigenic sites make the virus unrecognizable to the host, which results in evolution of the virus.

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