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Evolution Notes

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Biology 3466B
Yolanda Morbey

Evolution NotesNov 2011 Phylogeny of apes 1863 Occurred 4 years after Origin of the Species It is based on morphological and molecular evidence and characteristics The old world monkeys are a sister group to apes It goes old world monkeys apes gibbons great apes orangutan african great apes The african great apes is a polytomy because the relationship among gorillas chimps and humans was not resolved at this point Synapomorphies Traits of african great apeselongated skull enlarged brow ridge shortened stout canine teeth changes in front of upper jaw fusion of certain bones in wrist enlarged ovaries and mammary glands changes in muscular anatomy reduced hairiness These traits would have been used to infer the tree and synapomorphies Traits of great apeslarge brain no tail more erect posture more flexibility in hips ankles wrists and thumbs changes in structure and use of arm and shoulder Phylogeny using mtDNA Resolves the polytomy and shows the relationship among the african great apes It shows that there are multiple populations of humans The whole group is monophyletic It is based on the cytochrome oxidase II gene on mitochondria genome Gorillas are a sister group to chimps and humans Humans are most similar and most closely related to chimps based on this gene An early hominid which may be ancestral to chimps and humans did not knucklewalk Does this support convergent evolution of knucklewalking in chimps and gorillasyes Knucklewalking in chimps evolved secondarily because it was not present in the ancestor Species tree does not equal gene tree Loss of alleles through mutation occurs in the species tree making the genetic tree different The gene tree is based on a polymorphic gene and highly polymorphic genes have a greater probability of losing genetic diversity due to drift Polymorphic loci are not good for inferring phylogenies especially if there is bottlenecking In a bottleneck the subsample leads to a lack of genetic diversi
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