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Lecture 1

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Biology 3466B
Yolanda Morbey

Evolution Hand out 1 Definition: descent with change in allele frequency • Individuals develop; populations evolve Antarctic ice fish • Cleaner blood that was transparent, not red • Discovered there was dysfunctional red blood cells The structure of DNA • The nucleotide: Nucleotide components: phosphate group, 5- carbon sugar, nitrogenous base • The bases: purines (one ring)–adenine and guanine o Pyrimidine (2 rings): cytosine and thymine o A-T and C-G • Backbone: phospodiester linkage • Double helix Terminology: genes to organisms • Gene: stretched of DNA that encode for a particular type of rna or protein product e.g. flower colour • Locus: the location of the gene on a chromosome • Allele: alternative forms of a gene at a given locus e.g. p = purple, w= white • Genotype: characterization of the alleles carried by an individual e.g. pp, pw, ww • Phenotype: characterization of the traits expressed by an individual e.g. pp = purple, pw = pink, ww = white • Heterozygous: different alleles DNA replication • Mutation happens during DNA replication and repair • Replication starts off by the helix unwinding • One strand is the templated for a new strand to be made, necleotides aneal to the strand and catalyzed by DNA polymerases • Sometimes the error is repaired by polymersase, if it is not then mutation occur • Point mutation: single base substitution Mitosis • Prophase • Metaphase: chromosomes line up • Anaphase: sister chromotits spilt and move apart • Telophase: new membrane formed • Cell division is complete then cell goes into Interphase Meiosis • Meiotic division 1 – DNA replication and recombination, cell division 1 • Meitic division 2 – cell division 2 • Independent segregation • Mutations that occur in germ cell line and meiosis are heritable Recombination • Homologous chrom
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