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Lecture 3

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Western University
Biology 3466B
Yolanda Morbey

Handout 3: population genetics • Mechanisms of evolution o Mutation: mutation of one allele to the other not change to new allele o Migration: new allele frequencies come in o Genetic drift: happens when you only subsample part of the population o Natural selection: some indivudals do not survive to reproduce as they are under some kind of survival disadvantage • Hardy Weinberg principal o If there is no evolution, allele frequencies will not change as long as the assumptions are met. o P=allele frequency of A1 o q= allele frequency of A2 o P +2PQ +Q =1 2 o Allele frequencies don’t change across generations o If the allele frequencies are given by p and q then the genotype frequencies are given by P , 2PQ, Q2 o P+q=1 and P +2PQ +Q =1 2 o The assumptions  Diploid population  Sexual reproduction  No evolution  Infinite large population size  All indivuals survive to reproduce  Mating is random • Adding gentic drift to HWE o If they were to run the experiment again and again they would get different numbers each time o The allele frequency is different to the initial allele frequency • Adding selection to HWE o Selection can occur at any
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