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Western University
Biology 3475A/B
Jeremy Mc Neil

1152010 103700 AM aposematic colourationwasps will sting you in response to a threat it is expensive to stingif you get squashed and producing compoundswasp stinger like a hypodermic needle can sting repetitively even when dead honeybee stinger remains in skinthey will die after stinging you both release an alarm pheromone to recruit more generally organized in their defense figurealarm pheromone to recruit othersbc they live in groups Bioassay system for alarm pheromones in waspshow differently do they respond movement or non movementWhite or black swinging some things see when they were agitated what they would attackdiff types of extracts used as well blood made no response but if you use venom sac 66 indiv responded 64 responded attacked the moving dark and none the pale DONT WEAR DARK COLOURSthey attack Japanese Hornetcan actually cause serious problems when you get stungmuch larger than honeybeesattack honeybeeswhen they presence of the wasp bees circularize around and flap wings until the predator passes outAphidmake a droplet when attacked by enemiesthreatswhen exposed to threats of diff intensities how far away do they go and what behaviours do they express alarm pheromone made up of 1 compound called B farnesenemost of them stay where they are when air is just blowing at themas the concn of alarm pheromone increases they detect the danger and leave behavioural displacement in response to the alarm pheromonethe more there is the more dangermove fartheralarm pheromones are released by conspecificsplay dead when its from the wind thaneneonly when its wind and now when its real predators Bfarnesenecan we used this to modify the behaviour of aphids peststhe amount req to induce a response is diff bw spneed a higher concn to get a response when its not the same thing bc not the same fit by all diff spEffect of beta farnescene concn on the response of diff morp the green peach aphidnon feeding alatesindividuals with wingsthey respond very quickly when they detect dangerfeeding alatessucking up good nutrientsTRADE OFF how important are the dangers Vs foodrequires more alarm pheromone to initiate the same responseyoung adults leave at relatively low concn even with no wings 12 stage nymphslittle ones may not be detected or preferred by predators so they may not leavethey are in less danger so less likely to respondthe ones closer to being sexually mature wingless still will respond morethe really old individuals dont move a lot bc they have already reproduced They dont really care if they are eatenresponses that you will see must be taken in an ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT AND LIFE HISTORY OF ANIMAL and where they are in their lifetimeChemical cuescan be in an associationwith other cuesonly adult responds to a vibration whack the plantwhen predators walk on a plantwhen there is a consistent vibration they get an association same reasons as aboveResponse of diff developmental stages of pea aphids to the alarm pheromone
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