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Biodiversity Notes

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 3484A/B
Professor
Nina Zitani
Semester
Fall

Description
Biodiversity – Sept. 17/12 - Phylogenetics: Phylogeny is evolutionary history, the evolutionary history of descent of a group of taxa (a group of species, genera, families, etc.). A lineage is an ancestor and its descendants. All taxa are lineages – they include the ancestor and its descendants. Phylogenetics is the pursuit of determining the evolutionary relationships of groups of taxa and the building of natural classifications based on those relationships. - Homology/homologous features: Traits or features that different lineages inherited from their common ancestor. The presence of homologous features in two different organisms defines relatedness or common ancestry. - Analogy/analogous features: Traits or features that appear to be similar, but evolved independently. They are not similar due to relatedness or common ancestry, but due to convergent evolution, or independent evolution of similar forms. - Characters are traits/features/structures/characteristics. Character states – the character or trait can occur in more than one condition. Ex. In Homo sapiens, a character is hair colour, and the character states are brown, black, red, blond. - Basal (primitive): At or pertaining to the base. The unmodified condition. Ancestral condition. - Derived (advanced): Away from the base. Modified relative to the basal or ancestral condition. Having evolved from the basal condition. - The cladistics method (cladistics): The cladistics method has its beginnings with publications in the 1950s and 60s by Willi Hennig, a German entomologist. Cladistics is a method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades, which consist of an ancestor organism and all its descendants (and nothing else). Prior to Hennig, any morphological resemblance equaled a degree of phylogenetic relatedness. If two taxa looked similar, they were assumed to be related and were classified together in the same taxon. This was called phonetics, which means prior to cladistics. There was no attempt to resolve phylogeny in phonetics. Hennig broke up the concept of morphological resemblance by proposing three different categories of morphological resemblance, or three different ways in which taxa can morphologically resemble each other. - Type 1 – Morphological resemblance due to convergent evolution. - Type 2 – Morphological resemblance due to a symplesiomorphy (shared primitive or basal characters). - Type 3 – Morphological resemblance due to a synapomorphy (shared advanced or derived characters). - Hennig’s second major contribution to systematics was saying that Type 3 is the only type of morphological resemblance that can be used to define a taxon, or natural group. Types 1 and 2 are not evidence to define a taxon, or natural group. - Type 1: Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in different evolutionary lineages. Example – Hind jumping legs have evolved in the kangaroo and the grasshopper. They serve the same function (jumping type of locomotion) and they are structurally similar (large, highly muscular), but they evolved independently. We know that the common ancestor of the kangaroo and the grasshopper did not have hind jumping legs. The hind jumping legs evolved independently in each lineage. These are analogous structures – they are analogues. Analogous structures look similar and have a similar function, but this is due to convergence and not to common ancestry. Another example is insect and bird wings. They have similar form and function, but they are analogous structures. - Type 2: A symplesiomorphy is a basal or ancestral character or character state that is shared by members of a taxon. Problem – How do we define mammals from all other terrestrial vertebrates with four locomotory appendages? Mammals h
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