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Biodiversity Notes

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 3484A/B
Professor
Nina Zitani
Semester
Fall

Description
BiodiversityNov 1212 Eusociality involves colony caste system overlapping generations and defensive use of the sting Eusocial behaviour has evolved multiple times in unrelated lineages within the Aculeata and is an example of convergent evolution The role of the sting in eusocial Hymenoptera Used by individuals to defend the colony Used by individuals in selfdefense It is never used offensively A eusocial insect will not sting unless provoked in some way however some species are more aggressive than others Animals living in a colony especially a large colony are easy prey for larger animals A colony of wasps with stingers and potent venom is welldefended Phylogeny The Apocrita comprises the advanced Hymenopterans with a wasp waist including all the parasitoids and the Aculeata stining hymenoptera including stinging wasps bees and ants Family Vespidae Eusociality has evolved independently in this family within some clades Eusocial species are commonly called vespids social wasps paper wasps yellow jackets and baldfaced hornets The workers can be aggressive especially in the tropics Paper wasp nests of baldfaced hornets are common around here They use their mandibles to gather deadwood and chew it and mix it into paper to form nests A ground nesting eusocial yellow jacket also makes a paper nest in the ground Species in this family are predatoryThey feed their larvae large numbers of caterpillars and other insects They take insects back to their nest to feed their larvae They are ecologically beneficial There is different nest architecture with the paper wasp nests There is insect precision where individual cells of the nest are perfect hexagons Adult vespids are pollinators They feed on pollen and they pollinate plants A tropical vespid nest in Costa Rica has a slightly different nest architecture The outer material is rigid like cardboard rather than paper The workers defend the nest and they can be aggressive if people get too close Family ApidaeBees Th
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