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Lecture

Bio 1001A Notes


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001A
Professor
Tom Haffie

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Lab Outcomes 11/27/2012 9:29:00 AM
Lab 001 Tools of Cell Biology
1. Identify the parts and adjustments of the stereoscopic and
compound microscope
2. Define “parfocal,” “parcentric,” and “working distance”
Parfocal objects are in focus without need of refocusing after changing
from one objective to another
Parcentric objects are in the center of the field without need of recentering
after changing from one objective to another
Working distance the distance from the objective lens to the coverslip
when the specimen is in focus. Note how this distance changes when you
change objectives from low to medium to high power
3. Calibrate a microscope and use it to measure the actual size of an
object
4. Estimate the actual size of an object under a microscope
5. Calculate the magnification of a drawing
6. Convert units of measurement (cm, mm, nm)
7. Identify active areas of mitosis in a growing root tip
8. identify, using a microscope, the stages of mitosis for any cell
9. present the results in proper graphical form
Lab 002 Tools of Analysis: Chi-Square Tests
1. Design an experiment such that the data can be analyzed using
Chi-square
2. apply the Chi-square statistical test to appropriate data
3. prepare bacterial plates

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HIV 002 - Independent Study Questions11/27/2012 9:29:00 AM
Lecture 2 HIV
1. What are the general mechanisms by which vaccines protect
against diseases
2. Why developing a vaccine against HIV is relatively challenging,
compared to other diseases
HIV has a very fast mutation rate. Once the HIV is integrated into the host
DNA, it causes major problems for the vaccination trying to destroy the
virus, as it not only kills the virus, but the host cell as well.
3. Why people are encouraged to get a flu vaccine each year (as
opposed to one time only)
Lecture Outcomes
4. Identify the general global distribution of HIV infections
HIV is a classic example of a pandemic. Found across the world, but some
areas more than others.
5. Identify the temporal trends in HIV infection rates
Adults that are HIV positive are only 1% in Canada, the developed world
isn‟t very affected. In South Saharan Africa and less developed countries,
HIV is an incredibly prevalent disease. Over 60% affected with HIV in South
Saharan Africa. Well over 90% under the age of 15 that are HIV positive live
in South Saharan Africa. The number of children with HIV appears to be
plateauing, as well as the number of people dying.
6. Identify factors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has
been developed for HIV/AIDS
- HIV continues evolving, a cure that works now may not work 10 years
from now
- Companies may get more profit from treatment than from a cure
(conspiracy theory)
7. Identify reasons why viruses are not considered “alive”
- They cannot self reproduce, they are obligate parasites, they need a host
to reproduce that is alive to reproduce

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- They don‟t have metabolic processes because they are not made up of cells
- They are not cellular, they are much smaller of cells
8. Identify reasons why anti-viral drug therapies often have serious
side effects
The anti-viral drug not only kills the virus, but the host cell and causes
damage as well to the host tissues.
9. Identify major steps in the life cycle of HIV
- The virion (viral particle) enters the host immune cell
- Reverse transcriptase forms a molecule of viral DNA using RNA as a
template. There are no proofreading enzymes involved in this process. Very
high rate of error, which results in high mutation rates.
- Another HIV enzyme (integrates) splices viral DNA into host DNA
(chromosomes)
- Transcription, translation, and new virions assemble and “bud off” or “lyse
out” and will continue creating and pumping out more and more virions
- As more and more immune cells are hijacked and infected in this way, or
just killed, the human immune systems get broken down and they become
more susceptible to sickness
10. Identify the specific role of integrase and reverse transcriptase
in retroviral life cycle
A splicing enzyme, splices viral DNA inside the nucleus of the host genome
11. Identify the mechanism of action of AZT
AZT is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of HIV. It slows the growth of
HIV in the body by mimicking thymidine and inhibits reverse transcription.
AZP is not exactly the same as thymidine therefore the chain cannot
continue.
12. Identify reasons why the effectiveness of AZT decreases over
time
Eventually it is overpowered by the viruses mutation rate. Some reverse
transcription molecules are somewhat or highly resistance to AZT and some
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