Characteristics of life reflect complexity resulting from hierarchy of interactions: begins with atoms and progresses through molecules/macromolecules to cells. Emergent: come about from simpler interactions that do not have properties found at the higher levels. Characteristics of the habitable zone of a solar system. Water can exist in a liquid state (fundamental for development of life) Volcanic and seismic activity (eventually cooled down into rocks of the crust) Types of molecules that were/were not synthesized by the millar-urey experiment. Although successful, there is debate to whether atmosphere contained enough methane/ammonia to be considered reducing; some believe earth was not reactive at all. However, still demonstrated abiotic formation of molecules critical to life: building blocks of life synthesized: amino acids, nucleotides, simple sugars, not polymers! Importance of liposomes in evolution of first cells. Liposome: early type of protobiont (group of abiotically produced organic molecules surrounded by membrane-like structure) and are selectively permeable: similar to vesicles, can form spontaneously.