Biology 1002B Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Mitosis, Chromosome, Deoxyribonucleotide

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Watson and crick brought together information from several sources to. Work out dna structure: each nucleotide consists of the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of the four nitrogenous bases adenine (a), guanine (g), thymine (t), and cytosine (c). Two of the bases, adenine and guanine, are purines, nitrogenous bases built from a pair of fused rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The other two bases, thymine and cytosine, are py rimidines, built from a single carbon ring. The number of purines equals the number of pyrimidines, and the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine. These relationships are known as chargaff"s rules: dna contains nucleotides joined to form a polynucleotide chain. The deoxyribose sugars are linked by phosphate groups forming a sugar- phosphate backbone. Ea(cid:272)h phosphate group is a (cid:862)(cid:271)ridge(cid:863) (cid:271)et(cid:449)ee(cid:374) 3" (cid:272)ar(cid:271)o(cid:374) of o(cid:374)e sugar a(cid:374)d the 5" (cid:272)ar(cid:271)o(cid:374) of the (cid:374)e(cid:454)t sugar. The entire linkage is called a phosphodiester bond.

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