Biology 1202B Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Nucleoside Triphosphate, The Double Helix, Nobel Peace Prize

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2 Apr 2013
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Lecture 11: DNA Structure and Organization
Human Genome
1952 Hershey & Chase discovered DNA inherited material
1953 Watson, Crick & Franklin discovered the DNA structure double helix
1956 Tijo & Levan found there were 46 linear chromosomes in the nucleus
1963 Margit & Sylvan Nass discovered circular chromosomes in mitochondria
DNA Structure
Watson and Crick won a Nobel peace prize for discovering the double helix structure
of DNA
Rosalind Franklin played an indirect role in this discovery because she actually
discovered the helix by x-ray diffraction. However, she died at a young age from
exposure to the substances she was working with. Her reports made their way to
Watson and Crick.
Nucleotides
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic
acids
A nucleic acid is composed of a phosphate
group, a pentose (5) sugar, and a nitrogenous
base
These three basic components stay constant in
nucleic acids but can differ in many other ways
Differences between RNA and DNA
1. Ribose Sugar DNA lacks an OH
2. Thymine (T) and Uracil (U)
3. Strand DNA = double stranded
- RNA = single stranded
DNA
Phosphate group
Deoxyribose Sugar
4 nitrogenous bases:
o Guanine (G)
o Adenine (A)
o Thymine (T)
o Cytosine (C)
RNA
A phosphate group
Ribose Sugar
4 nitrogenous bases
o Guanine (G)
o Adenine (A)
o Uracil (U)
o Cytosine (C)
DNA & RNA are both made of dNTP (deoxynucleoside triphosphate)
Ie, dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP, dUPT (in RNA instead of dTTP)
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