The topic of this last lecture is the glycobiology of cellular stress responses. I like this topic very much because it is a part of my research interests and usually i cover here more specifically the research in my lab. This time i want you to learn basic concepts of glycobiology and wish you become interested in this emerging area of life sciences. Our topics today are glycocalyx, monosaccharides and glycans, lectins, and a special type of stress-associated glycosylation of intracellular proteins called. Cells use carbohydrates not only as a source of energy, but also as important molecules that are required for cellular communications and regulation of multiple cellular functions. Glycobiology can be defined as the study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biological functions of (1) glycans (also called carbohydrates, saccharides, sugar chains), (2) glycoconjugates, (3) glycan-binding proteins (lectins) and (4) glycan-modifying enzymes (glycosyltransferases and glycosidases).