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Biology 2244A/B
Angela White

BIOSTATS: Lecture 1 Notes Statistics: a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, analyzing, interpreting, presenting, and drawing conclusions based on data Population: group of all individuals you are studying Sample: some members of the population we select to measure Census: the collection of data from every member of the population Parameter: a measurement describing some characteristic of a population Statistic: a measurement describing some characteristic of a sample Types of Data –  Nominal - Names, labels, categories (no order we can put them in) - E.g. hair colour  Ordinal - Categories that have an order to them (not numbers) - Differences are meaningless between the data values - E.g. stress levels  Interval - Quantitative - Like ordinal, but difference is meaningful (+ or -) - No natural 0 starting point - E.g. shoe size, temperature  Ratio - Quantitative - Ratios and differences are meaningful (x or /) - Natural 0 starting point - E.g. weight, age, distance Bias: a systematic favoritism in the data selection process, resulting in misleading results - If you keep choosing randomly, it does not fix your problem Confounding: occurs when effects of variables are somehow mixed so that the individual effects of variables cannot be identified Discrete data: number of possible values is either a finite or a “countable” number Continuous data: infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps Block: a group of subjects that are known (prior to the experiment) to be similar in the ways that might affect the outcome of the experiment Statistical Studies –  Observational Study - observe and measure specific characteristics but we do not attempt to modify the subjects being studied o Cross-sectional study – data measured at one point in time o Retrospective (or case-control) – go back in time to collect data o Prospective (or cohort) study – go forward in time and observe groups sharing common factors such as smokers and non-smokers  Experiment - apply some treatment and then proceed to observe its affects on the subjects o Key elements in design of experiments: 1. Control effects of variables through blinding blocks -
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