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Biology 2244A/B
Angela White

BIOSTATS: Lecture 2 Notes Describing distribution of quantitative data/variables:  Shape – overall pattern (distribution) of observations  Centre – typical value of variable (where the middle of the data set is located)  Spread – dispersion of observations Variation: measure of the amount that the data values vary among themselves Outliers: sample values that lie very far away from the vast majority of the other sample values Time: changing characteristics of the data over time Density Curves:  Describe theoretical distribution  Density histograms and density curves should be similar  Properties: o Curve always lies on or above the horizontal axis o Has an area of exactly 1 underneath it o Area under the curve for a given range of values is the proportion of data expected to fall in that range Frequency distributions:  Lists data values (individually or by groups of intervals) along with their corresponding frequencies (or counts)  Frequency – the number of original values that fall into a particular class  Lower class limits – smallest numbers that can belong to the different classes  Upper class limits – largest numbers that can belong to the different classes  Class boundaries – the numbers used to separate classes, but without the gaps created by class limits  Class midpoints – midpoints of the classes (add LCL to UCL and divide by 2)  Class width – difference between 2 consecutive lower class limits or 2 consecutive lower class boundaries  Relative frequency -  Cumulative freq
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