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Lecture 3

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Biology 2244A/B
Angela White

Lecture 3 Characteristics of Data - Center – average - Variation – measure of how much data varies amongst itself - Distribution – shape of distribution of data - Outliers – sample values lie outside range of most of data - Time Frequency Distribution - Has data values and frequencies corresponding - Data values separated into classes o Lower limit – lowest number in each class o Upper limit – highest number in each class o Class boundary – find gap between class, divide by two, add to lower and upper limits o Midpoint – middle of each class o Class width – diff. b/w 2 consecutive lower/upper limits - Process o Pick # of classes o Find class width  Round up o Tally frequencies - Relative frequency distribution o Equals class freq. divided by total frequency - open-ended interval o 65+ - frequencies for all data 65 and above Visualizing Data - Histogram o Bar graph w/ classes and frequencies o Relative frequency histogram – use relative freq. instead of normal freq. o Pareto chart – bar chart, categories on X-axis shown in DECREASING frequency  NOMINAL o Dot plot – data is a point on scale of values, shows individual data points o Scatter diagram – when looking for correlation Measures of Center  ONE MORE DECIMAL than original values - Center – the middle value of data - Mean – average number o X-bar – SAMPLE mean - Me
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