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organismal phys.

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 2601A/B
Professor
Brent Sinclair
Semester
Winter

Description
Oct 411 Metabolism ATP is the main energy source in the cell Some is produced in glycolysis but the main products of the citric acid cycle are FADH2 and NADH The mitochondria turn these products into ATP In most animals energy is not stored as ATP It is stored as lipids carbs starch fructans sucrose in plants trehalose in insects and glycogen in animals and proteins and amino acids These things contain chemical potential energy that needs to be turned into work This chemical potential is released by controlled oxidation Direct burning has a large Ea and all the energy is released as heat and none is used for work Respiration however uses small Eas and the energy is transferred to energy carriers in a bunch of small steps This results in 686 kcalmolGeneral process substrate pyruvateacetyl CoA krebs cycle mitochondrial ETC last two steps happen in the mitochondria Cells with lots of mitochondria do lots of work When oxygen is available the fuel glucose is broken down using glycolytic pathways Oxidative phosphorylation depends on the availability of O2 anaerobic respiration does not result in mitochondrial respiration O2 is not needed in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle involves acetyl CoA going in CO2 coming out and reducing equivalents NADH and FADH2 to come out which are passed on to ETC to make ATP O2 is needed for the ETC because it is the final electron acceptor NAD and FAD cannot serve as final electron acceptors Mitochondrial electron transport chain Consists of four protein complexes that are each capable of undergoing reversible reduction and oxidation The chain takes electrons from NADH2 and FADH2 and passes them along from one complex to the next Complex I NADH dehydrogenase accepts hydrogens from NADH2 which regenerates NAD This is entry point 1 This comp
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