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Biology 2601A/B
Brent Sinclair

Sept 1511 Characteristics of mammals Females have mammary glands hairfur three bones in middle ear homeothermic endothermsThermoregulation is the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature An example is an animal that maintained its body temperature at 39C even though it was jumping in and out of cold water Heat moves out of an animals body when Tb is greater than Ta cools down Heat moves into the body when Tb is less than Ta gets warmer An animals metabolic rate remains constant at all the different ambient environmental temperatures in the thermoneutral zone TNZ In its TNZ a mammal or bird varies its insulation Animals must modulate their insulation in order to thermoregulate in the TNZ When Ta is lowered in the TNZ the difference between Tb and Ta becomes greater The animal responds by increasing its insulation which increases its resistance to heat loss by counterbalancing the increase in the driving force for heat loss allowing the animals actual rate of heat loss to remain constant The animals rate of metabolic heat production also remains constant Smaller species tend to have narrower TNZs than larger species The TNZ represents a modulation of insulation and blood flow For example blood flow can be restricted to the extremities to maintain the Tb of the core When the temperature falls below the TNZ the animal must modulate its rate of metabolic heat production in order to thermoregulate Below the TNZ as the environment becomes colder the animal must keep raising its rate of metabolic heat production higher and higher in order to stay warm There is increased energy consumption due to heat generation It takes energy to get hot or cool There is a limit to the amount of insulation that an animal can produce An animals lowercritical temperature represents the Ta below which its insulation adjustments become inadequate to counterbalance the increase in the driving fo
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