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Biology 2601A/B
Brent Sinclair

Sept 2711 Laws if thermodynamics 1 Energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only change forms conservation of energy 2 Entropy of an isolate system never decreases increasing disorder Autotrophs make food from sunlight and some other energy sources Heterotrophs use the food to do work Food contains chemical bond energy that is turned into other kinds of energy FoodO2 produces work heat and CO2 The aerobic catabolic pathway is divided into glycolysis Krebs cycle electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation Food goes in and reducing equivalents come out In glycolysis one molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid two molecules of NAD are reduced to NADH2 and two molecules of ATP are used and four are formed for a net yield of two ATP The pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis is oxidized in the mitochondria by the Krebs cycle The six carbons of each glucose molecule catabolized emerge in the form of six molecules of CO2 as the pyruvic acid molecules produced by glycolysis are process by the Krebs cycle For each glucose molecule catabolized the Krebs cycle produces eight molecules of NADH2 and two molecules of FADH2 Two molecules of ATP are produced for each molecule of glucose catabolized ATP is the main energy currency in the cell The release of energy from ATPADP is harnessed for fuel Energy sources for animals come from protein fat and carbohydrates Carbohydrates are stored as disaccharidestrehalose sucrose or as complex carbs glycogen in animals starch in plants Glucose or glucose6phosphate is turned into pyruvate Other carbs are turned into monosaccharides to join the glycolytic pathway This process is fast but not superefficient It generates ATP Proteins are broken down to free amino acids some storage proteins in insects Amino acids can be converted to pyruvate some can enter the TCA cycle dir
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