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Organismal Physiology Lecture (sep 11).docx

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Western University
Biology 2601A/B

Organismal Physiology Lecture Sept 11, 2012 Temperature: Humans have flexibility; we can produce shlter, clothing, etc, we can survive in different temperatures Other organisms live in extreme environments (like penguins- don’t build shelter but they cuddle together) Tree on the right lives in an extremely hot and dry environment Temperature definition- know this Difference between temp and heat: temp is caused by intensity of motion at a molecular level, heat is the amount of energy actually in an object: 2 blocks with the same temperature, but if one has twice the mass it has twice the heat Heat is always transferred from warm to cool Eqwuation: energy balance equation for any organism (or object) When the equation equals 0 the object is not gaining or losing energy Direct radiontion from the sun, indirect radiation bouncing off of shit, radiation from the sky, amount of infared radtiation is dependent on the temperature of the object- you also emit radiation Convective potential; windier it is the faster its moving heat away from you Conduction; the transfer of nrg through solids (sit on a warm rock) Metabolism: some have metabolic heat and some dont Latent heat loss (L): water evaporation or condensation Thermometer slide: showing us the scales we will be working with Absolute zero= no atomic motion Some organisms can be frozen in liquid nitrogen and survive when they unthaw Some extremophiles can survive much higher temperatures Tb= body temperature Regional: an animal that might be walking on ice or something Oxygen consumption is a measure of metabolic activity; the metabolic rate increases as the organism gets hotter M= resting metabolic rate A= constant N= constant Tb= body temp If you put the metabolic rate on a log scale instead of a linear scale, the relationship becomes linear as opposed to exponential Q10= how much does that rate change when you change the temperature 10 degrees Rt= rate of given temp Roughly exponential, the impact of a 10 degree change depends on which interval you’re looking at. If you’re measuring between 20 and 30 degrees it’s a dramatic effect, mediocre effect from 10-20, small effect from 0-10 Respiration is an exponential function (warm the leaves respiration icreases exponentially) The warmer the enzyme is the weaker the affinity for the substrate Substrate a interacts with the enzyme to produce product b V max is the maxiumum rate or velocity of the reaction (where does it saturate) Km= amount of substrate to get to ½ vmax Enzyme substrate affinity: inverse of the Km (high km= low affinity) Warmer generally means faster Photoperiod: day length, doesn’t change, animals don’t usualy depend purely on temperature bevause it can very (warm spring, suddenly its cold again) Seasonality is photoperiod dependent Once there is metabolic heat in the komoto dragon it has a lot of volume so it can stay warm for a long time, less surface area for it to be lost from, more volume for it to keep it Higher temps you might need a lot of oxygen but you may not be able to deliver it fast enough Membrane fluidity gets cold and hard and brittle and cant operate properly, too hot it gets all melty and fluid and leaky (modify membrane composition to fix this) Enxyme denaturation (usually occurs between 50-70 degrees) Blue line
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