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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 – Bio 3444F.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 3444F/G
Professor
Nusha Keyghobadi
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture  3  –  Bio  3444F   September  24 ,  2013   Chapter  3  &  4   More  variable  markers  have  more  information  at  close  scales.     If  you  want  to  distinguish  things  that  are  very  different,  want  to  use  a  low  variability   marker.       Nuclear  –  generate  diploid  genotypes   Organelle  –  generate  haplotypes     Population  genetics  is  a  subdiscipline  of  evolutionary  biology  that  examines:   1. How  genes  behave  in  populations   2. How  populations  change  over  time,  or  evolve,  in  terms  of  changes  in  allele   frequencies     Concerned  with  genetic  variation     Determining  breeding  success  of  males  in  a  small  isolated  population  of  grizzly   bears   -­‐ Individual  level   -­‐ Paternity   -­‐ Sexual  selection/mating  patterns   -­‐ Microsatellites  (highly  variable,  specifically  would  want  to  look  at  the  Y-­‐ chromosome)     Determining  whether  an  invasive  weed  is  an  introduction  of  a  European  or  African   subspecies   -­‐ Subspecies/species   -­‐ Dispersal,  movement,  introduction   -­‐ Mitochondrial  DNA,  sequence  variation  to  generate  a  haplotype     Heritability  is  an  important  factor  in  natural  selection       Hardy-­‐Weinberg  Equilibrium:  predicts  frequencies  of  genotypes  in  a  population,   given  allele  frequencies  assuming:   -­‐ Diploid  organism   -­‐ Sexual  reproduction   -­‐ Completely  random  mating   -­‐ No  factors  acting  that  could  change  allele  frequencies  (no  selection,  no   mutation,  no  genetic  drift,  no  gene  flow)   Most  genetic  loci  in  most  organisms  are  found  to  be  in  Hardy-­‐Weinberg   equilibrium.     Wahlund  effect:  isolated  populations  that  don’t  breed  combined  together,  giving   deviation  from  Hardy-­‐Weinberg     Allelic  diversity  =  mean  #  of  alleles  per  locus.  Dependent  on  sample  size   Allelic  richness  =  Mean  #  of  alleles  per  locus,  corrected  for  sample  size.       Polymorphic  =  at  least  2  or  more  alleles.  Mostly  used  for  allozymes  and  AFLPs.       Observed  heterozygosity  (H0)  =  Proportion  of  individuals  sampled  that  are   heterozygous.  Ca
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