2181 Lecture 4: Mos Ch4

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MOS Chapter 4 Reading Notes:
Values, Attitudes and Work Behavior
WHAT ARE VALUES?
Values can be defined as a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others.
-preference means that values have to do with what we consider good and bad
- values are motivational- they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that
we seek
- they also signal how we should and should not behave
- the words broad tendency signify that values are very general and that they do not
predict behaviors in specific situations very well
- people tend to hold values structured around achievement, power, autonomy,
conformity, tradition and social welfare
Generational Differences in Values
Todays workplace has four different generations:
1. the Traditionalists (born 1922-1945) (8%)- grew up in the shadow of two world
wars and are hard-working, stable, respectful, fair, consistent
2. the Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964) (44%)- grew up in a vibrant economy during
the sexual revolution and are optimistic, team oriented, knowledgeable, service-
oriented, warm, caring and use a democratic approach to leading
3. the Generation X (born 1965-1980) (34%)- experienced more dual-career families
and more divorce when growing up. Are seen as cynical, confident, independent,
creative and pragmatic
4. Generation Y (born 1981- 2000) (14% and increasing rapidly)- experienced the
same situations as Gen X growing up and are confident, social, demanding of
feedback and somewhat unfocused
*The latter two groups are more accepting of diversity and striving for good work-life
balance. They also are more inclined to value money, status and rapid career growth.
Cultural Differences in Values
Work Centrality- work is valued differently across cultures: people in Japan perceive
work as a highly central life interest whereas people in the United States view work as a
moderate central life interest
Hofstedes Study
Discovered four dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures:
1. Power distance refers to the extent to which society members accept an unequal
distribution of power. In small power distance cultures power differences and
inequality are minimized, and superiors are accessible (eg. Denmark, New
Zealand, Israel)
2. Uncertainty Avoidance refers to the extent to which people are uncomfortable
with uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures
stress rules and regulations, conformity and security (eg. Japan, Greece Portugal).
In cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance on the other hand, risk taking is
valued (eg. Singapore, Denmark, Sweden)
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3. Masculinity/femininity- more masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender
roles, support the dominance of men and stress economic performance (eg. Japan
and Slovakia). More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual
equality and stress quality of life. (eg. the Scandinavian countries)
4. Individualism/collectivism- more individualistic countries tend to stress
independence and privacy (western cultures) whereas collective societies favor
interdependence and loyalty to one’s family (eastern cultures)
5. Long-term/short-term orientation- cultures with long-term orientation stress
persistence, perseverance and close attention to status differences. Cultures with
short-term orientation stress personal steadiness, stability and social niceties
Note: power distance and degree of individualism tend to be related: cultures that are
more individualistic tend to downplay power differences
WHAT ARE ATTITUDES?
- an attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some
specific observation, person, or category of people
- attitudes involve evaluations directed toward specific targets
- since attitudes are tendencies to respond to a target, they often influence our
behavior toward that target
osometimes our attitudes are not consistent with out behavior (eg. you
dislike your boss but do not engage in public criticism of him for fear of
retaliation)
- NOTE: BELIEF + VALUE = Attitude which in turn affects the behavior
WHAT IS JOB SATISFACTION
Job Satisfaction refers to a collection of attitudes that people have about their jobs
- two aspects of satisfaction include:
ofacet satisfaction, the tendency for an employee to be more or less
satisfied with various facets of the jobs eg. I love my work but hate my
boss
ooverall satisfaction summarizes a persons attitude towards their job as a
whole eg. On the whole, I like my job, although a couple of aspects could
stand some improvement. It is an average or total of the attitudes
individuals hold toward the various facets of the job
othe Job descriptive index (JDI) measures job satisfaction according to five
facets: people, pay, supervision, promotions, and the work itself
othe Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) measures respondents
satisfaction using a scale ranging from “very satisfied” to “very
dissatisfied”
WHAT DETERMINES JOB SATISFACTION
Note: attitudes (such as job satisfaction) are a product of beliefs and values therefore
these two factors cause differences in job satisfaction even when jobs are identical
- two peoples perceptions of the job and wants from the job may also be different
Discrepancy theory of job satisfaction asserts that satisfaction stems from the discrepancy
between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained
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