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Topic 0 Summary: "Bonding"

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Mel Usselman

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Organic Chemistry Key Concepts: Topic 0 (Usselman Version) -The number in the upper right of a given atom on the periodic table is the number of valence electrons (the number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell). The lower right denotes the atom’s electronegativity value. -Electronegativity reflects an atom’s ability to “attract a shared pair of electrons to itself.” Electronegativity values increase up and to the right of the periodic table. -Polar bonds result from the unequal sharing of electrons between unlike atoms with electronegativity differences < 1.9, but > 0.5. As a note, rank hydrogen as having relatively the same electronegativity value as carbon. Sometimes the dipoles of polar bonds cancel each other out, so the molecule itself is non-polar (has no net-dipole moment). The 3D structure of a molecule needs to be known before its overall polarity can be recognized. -Formal charge describes if the n
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