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Orgo 2213 Topic 2b Notes.docx

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Western University
Chemistry 1027A/B
Mel Usselman

Organic Chemistry Key Concepts: Alkenes & Alkynes (Usselman Version) -The alkenes are hydrocarbons of the general formula C H ; 2 ne2n Hs because of the presence of a double-bond. The alkynes have the general formula C H n 2n – 2nd contain a triple bond. -Each reduction of 2 hydrogens in the general alkane formula represents one unit of unsaturation. Examples of one unit of unsaturation include a π bond or a ring. Examples of 2 units of unsaturation include a π bond in a ring or 2 π bonds (in a triple bond). -Isolated arrangements include 2 or more σ bonds between the π bonds. Conjugated arrangements include multiple bonds which alternate with single bonds. Cumulated arrangements include two double bonds on a single carbon. For C = C, change the suffix to ene. For C = C, change the suffix to yne. -The longest carbon chain must contain as many π bonds as possible. -Potential for exam: CH =C2- : vinyl CH 2CH-Cl: vinyl chloride CH =2HCH -: 2llyl CH 2CHCH Br:2allyl bromide -In an alkene’s shape, there is a double bond (between 2 atoms such as C, N or O) which requires two 2 adjacent sp hybridized atoms. Note that π bonds have a region of high electron density both above and below the molecular plane. -In
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