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September 10th Orgo Notes .docx

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Western University
Chemistry 1027A/B
Mel Usselman

September 10 2012 Lecture 2 Organic ChemistryAcid and BasesSmallest useful particle in all of us o Electrons and protons hydrogen is the smallest o Electrons are smallesto Protons are the next smallest after electronsNature uses 2 particles in everything that it doesAcids and bases are moving protons this is why we are interested in themAcids and bases proton transfersMostly use the BronstedLowry definition for acid and bases o An acid is a proton donorHAHAconjugate base HA is stableResult is a proton that has lost its electronNot going to be happy without the electronA has gained the electronA went from neutral to negativeThis system goes from high energy to low energyThis system goes from a happy state to an unhappy stateo A base is a proton acceptorB baseHBH conjugate acidBase goes around looking for a proton Once it gains the proton its no longer neutralo Always have to have an acid reaction occurring at the same time as the base reactionThey always occur together For a Strong acid HA o HAH2OH3O AWater has a lone pairSo it wants a proton for its lone pairThis reaction pretty much goes fully to the right o BH2OBHOHBase has the lone pair this timeStrong acids fully dissociateStrong bases become FULLY protonatedWeak Acids o HAH2OH3OaqAaq o This is and unequal equilibrium o The arrow going to the right is shorter than the arrow going to the left o The longer arrow indicates favoring the reaction that results in the left hand side o Weak acids do not fully dissociate
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