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Rome Notebook.docx

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000

Social Structure of Rome 1/14/2013 6:34:00 PM History  Moves on timeline  750  44  0  44  750 o BC/BCE = left side o AD(ado domini)/CE = right side Stages (3)  Regal Period: 753-510 BCE o Ruled by kings  Republic: 510-27 BCE o Oligarchy o Overthrow kings  Imperial Period/Roman Empire: 27 BCE – 476 CE Political Organization  All political positions = unpaid o Held by upper class  The Consuls o 2 elected annually (1 yr. position) o chief magistrates of Roman Republic o had to give up throne at years end o power of veto prevented abuse of power by either o had “imperium” – power to command armed forces  Dictator o appointed only at time of national emergency o replaces consuls o 6-month limit o supreme military authority o in imperial period  highest ranking man = emperor  The Senate o council of elders recruited from ex-magistrates o 300-600 members o most powerful force in Republican Rome 1) The Senatorial Ordo  1 and highest class  most prestigious in Republic/Empire  small circle of families with high birth and wealth  have to have 1M HS (sesterces) property requirement  not a hereditary aristocracy A) Patricians o families of great antiquity; prominent during Republic o Julii, Claudii, etc. o Dominated political, legal, religious, military affairs o Owned most of land B) Nobiles o Senatorial families in whose ancestors was a consul or a praetor o Senatorial families died out/went broke fast o Always room for others to move up into the ordo o Not allowed to involve selves with manual labor/commerce o Novi-Homines (new men)  New men could become nobiles  Name for the first man in family to hold consulship/praertorship 2) The Equestrian Ordo nd  Birth/wealth in the 2 degree  Business class of Rome  Originally functioned as Romes cavalry  Larger than the senatorial ordo  Historians differ on what constituted membership  400,000 HS = property requirement  Functioned as the bankers, money lenders, tax collectors, and merchants  Some became politicians  many richer than senators  Considerable political and legal influence 3) The Plebeians  referred to as the “have-nots” of Rome in text o not true  wide variety of incomes within class  494 BCE  plebs agitated to have patrician hold on political/religious offices broken  450  right of intermarriage with patricians permitted Roman Topography 1/14/2013 6:34:00 PM The City of Rome  Sited on the Tiber river: o Fertile, defensible, access to the sea, salt field  Seven hills of Rome o Capitoline o Aventine o Palatine o Esquiline o Quirinal o Viminal o Caelian  The hills were separated by marshes which flooded frequently Earliest Settlement  Evidence for settlement at Rome as early as 900/800 BCE (cremations/burned and inhumations/buried on the Palatine)  Early society: poor, lived in simple mud-and-wood huts  Evidence of huts discovered on the Palatine about 60 years ago o Romans believed Rome was founded in 753 BCE  preserved the „hut of Romulus‟ o Cremation urns resembled huts th  Remains of an 8 Century wall discovered o Believed Romulus built around the city Ancient Urban Planning  This addressed ONLY how cities should be laid out o No concern for local transport needs, social concerns, economic parameters, environmental issues o Nor did they plan out socio-economic zones  Julius Caesar had a house in the Subura (ancient Rome‟s red-light district)  Prostitutes and noblewomen lived side-by-side  There did exist land surveyors and architects however  A „Roman‟ town (wherever it was in the Empire) had several features: o Walls, temples, a forum, water supply, paved streets  Also had porticoes (covered walkways), baths, theatre, amphitheater, prison, treasury, etc. General features of a Town:  In any town, the forum was originally just an open space, later on walled and enclosed with a gate to control traffic  The amphitheater was normally situated on the outskirts of a city (to keep crowds away)  Walls were built for security but also to control access to the city and set up a customs barrier The Growth of Urban Rome:  Rome‟s expansion and consolidation of her empire is reflected in the fabric of the city itself  7 thCentury BCE: early urbanization o Forum was paved, monumental religious architecture, shops and houses  4 thCentury BCE: o City was walled; first aqueducts; new temples  200 BCE: wealth art, slaves, poured into the city; extensive building nd  2 Century BCE: o economic benefits of empire were providing a higher standard of living (for some) o triumphal arches porticoes, paved streets, marble temples  Architecture o triumphal architecture being built o much competition for conspicuous exhibits: „prestige urbanism‟ o but although architecture proceeded quickly until 100 BCE, there was still no real commitment to urban planning o In the Republic the office of the aedile was only for one year (took care of roads and planning, etc.)  Made it hard for them to have any real vision o Dictators were the ones with most success with long term organization of urban space (given more time) The Influence of the Roman Generals:  Sulla: reshaped Rome‟s monumental center in the 80s BCE o Temple to Jupiter, Tabularium (record office/archives), the Curia (senate house), marble paving in the Forum  Pompey: first stone theatre in 55 BCE; first public gardens  Caesar: repaved the Forum, public garden, Forum Julium, Temples to Venus Genetrix and Mars, a new Senate house Growth of Empire:  Had other repercussions as well  Imports of grain, luxuries, slaves  And a huge influx in population  By the end of the Republic, city had population of 1 Million  Crowded into 7 square miles o Couldn‟t expand because of wall  This too affected the physical appearance of the city The Imperial Period:  Urbanism and planning were done by the emperors  Augustus especially (formerly known as Octavian) o New forum, temple to Mars, altars and temples o Public baths, Pantheon (built by his General: Agrippa) o Overhauled sewage and aqueduct systems o Re-organized city into XIV regions o Revived office of the urban praefect, who had some responsibilities in town planning o The Flavians carried out rebuilding: public gardens, fountains, amphitheater, bath houses o Building = propaganda  keep the people and the senate happy by providing jobs, gives city diversion, etc. all to solidify popularity amongst the population Main Sections of Rome:  Residential: Palatine (high class), Subura (red-light district), Esquiline (other main area of Rome)  Forums: political and legal life  Markets: near Tiber river o Can bring in resources via boat o Can dump raw sewage/garbage into river for easy cleanup  Campus Martius crowded with temples and theaters  Some gardens may have been built for public health: those over the Esquiline cemetery, for example o Some bodies were just tossed into opened graves, flowers reduced the stank and grime Building Regulations:  Height, ambit (area around a building), and materials were unregulated and unenforced  Eventually it was regulated that insulae (apartment buildings) had to be build out of concrete rather than wood, rubble, and clay  Augustus limited the heights of buildings on the streets to 70‟ o Only for buildings directly facing onto the street  But rickety high buildings and party walls continued to exist  No requirement to notify the authorities of an intended new structure Palatine:  Central hill o Remained the center of power throughout history of Rome  Where Rome was founded by Romulus  Residences of the wealthy/elite  Residence of the emperors Capitoline  Very steep hill o Stronghold of Rome  Religious and archival center  Wealth stored in temples  Where the word capital comes from Aventine  Territory of the Plebeians o Had main temples/sanctuaries here Campus Martius  „field of Mars‟  large plain  outside the city limit (the pomerium)  Army would convene here and commanders be elected  Dozens of temples and theatres built here by generals  Voting-place Forum Romanum:  The Roman Forum  A valley  Other forums existed in Rome  Was originally a marsh, which the Romans drained  Center of legal and political activity; marketplace and civic center; temples  Senate house and law courts  Via Sacra (sacred road) ran down the center  The Forum was forgotten in the Middle Ages The Senate House: curia hostilia  Inside the forum  Connected with a church and still survives The Rostrum:  Roman trials took place  In the forum  Marc Anthony delivered speech about Caesars death Urban Living 1/14/2013 6:34:00 PM Corpses:  Paupers, slaves, infants  Were not safe from dogs and vultures  Dead bodies also reportedly flung into sewers and drains Animal entrails:  (organs, intestines)  no central slaughter house at Rome  Animals driven through the streets to the shop, then killed, skinned, disemboweled, and disremembered on the spot  Animal skins, feces, entrails o Added to the general filth in the streets o Much was eaten by dogs and birds  Attracted flies which transmitted disease Health Risks of Unsanitary Conditions  Cholera, dysentery, gastroenteritis, salmonella, etc.  Most magic amulets worn to cure or ward off disease were designed for stomach complaints  Did Roman baths reduce the risks?
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