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Classics Lecture #16

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Feb 11, 2013: FROM GRACCHI TO SULLAL THE ARMY, THE END OF THE REPUBLIC Populares,Optimates,theGracchi • Optimates think the best ppl should be allowed to control Rome Populares think people should be more involved in control • • Optimates said that Populares were only using people to advance their own career • Populares accused Optimates of being selfish • The Gracchis were 2 famous political leaders, which they were groomed to be • Their names are Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus TiberiusGracchus • Him and his brother were the grandson of the Affricanus guy, so Senates were really suspicious of them • Thought that laws must be strictly enforced that you can’t have 1000 acres of land • People were angry, that they’ve been renting these lands for generations and we put so much efforts into it so you can’t just take it away from us • Tiberius wants to give the lands to the ones in need • So he made an assembly and just passed the bill on his own without the consent of the senate • And the Roman people showed up and began to vote, but a tribune came to interfere • So Tiberius just kicked the tribune out of office, which was not a part of the Roman Constitution • Senates said they’re not gonna give Tiberius any money for his scheme • And he said thats okay we’ll hold another vote, and it succeeded again • That is when people started to notice that Senates don’t really have any real power • Violence broke out and he got killed along with 300 people GausSimproniusGracchus • His brother, Gaius, ran for tribune and got elected • He set up a omnibus bill, which appealed to all parts of the Roman society so it was a very clever bill • This gave more rights to the equestrians • Riots came up because he said all Italians should be allowed Roman citizenship • 3000 people were killed and he committed suicide • Senates didn’t like the credits going to the Gracchus and not that they were necessarily against the ideas WarwithNumidianJugurtha • It seems like Senates are a real, organized structure, very large group of influential men • In a region called Numidian there was a guy named Jugurtha who’s father was a king • When his father died he killed his brothers systematically Rome told him to stop but he didn’t so Rome declared war against Jugurtha • • It was a small desert kingdom • Earlier years Rome was completely unsuccessful • He knew Roman battle tactics when he used to be a commander under Romans • He also bribed all the Roman Tribunes and bought off Roman military powers GaiusMarius A guy named Gaius Marius guy comes, elected as council • • He was a great public speaker, and his speech was about “I’m better because I’m not from the upper class.” • He defeated Jugurtha in 2 years • At first he was unsuccessful, because Jgurtha joined forces with his farther in law to fight against Rome • But his farther in law, Bocchus, negotiated peace with Romans and betrayed him • As a result Marius won the war and Bocchus recieved a part of the Numidian kingdom Celts • He comes back home and encounters these barbaric warriors named Celts • Romans are terrified from these people Marius is given the order to fight them and it took him a while, eventually • he comes back and he is elected as council for 5 years, which is a pretty big fucking deal MariusStandoffwiththesenate:theTribuneSaturninus • Marius on his return to Rome after the victory over Celts found himself isolated in the senate • He ented a compact with Saturninus and his ally • By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected cof consul for the 6th time SocialWar • Italians revolted and all Italians got citizenships? Is that what happened? • The social war was in part caused by the assassination of Marcus Drusus in 91 BC • His reforms would have granted the Roman allies Roman citizenship, giving them a greater say in the external policy of the Roman Republic • The war began when Italian allies revolted, showing their intentions of not just separating from Rome but forming an independent nation called Italia • Sulla took full command and eventually won the war • A law was proposed, offering full citizenship to all Latin and Italian communities who had not revolted MithridatesofPontus • Mithridates was a guy that claimed himself to be related to Gods • He took over Asian Minor • He killed 80 000 Romans to reclaim land • The people that revolted along with him all wanted the really wealthy land • This war was really vital because it was a grand expedition Whowi
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