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Classics Lecture #17

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Feb 25, 2013 THEFIRSTTRIUMVIRATE • Caesar wanted to control the province of Gaul for 8 years • That was a long time • Caesar was very successful in Gaul (Modern day France) Pompey was jealous • • The coins made in that period are all propaganda • Whoever made coins had the control of what was printed on them so Caesar tried to control it Theelections • Caesar was up in Gaul • The custom was that if the person as governor was doing wrong (taking bribes, for example) they just be investigated after their office time was over • Caesar did shady things in his 9 years in power • Caesar wanted to keep running for office but he was chased away by Pompey and wont let him run for elections • So he crossed the Rubicon (a river) and headed to Italy • He was not allowed to leave his province so technically he was breaking the constitution • Pretty much started a civil war but he claimed that he was forced into it • Pompey immediately abandoned Italy They forgot to take their treasure so all of the wealth was left for Caesar, • who then overtook Rome with ease • Pompey was now in Greek trying to prepare for a counter attack • Hence it was an official civil war CaesarbesiegesPompey • Most senators believe that both side were at fault • Pompey outnumbered Caesar in soldiers • Caesar defeated Pompey’s 60k with 30k only CaesarinEgypt • Pompey fled to Egypt, except the Romans there beheaded Pompey • Cesar cried and stuff over Pompey’s death Caesar met Cleopatra at Egypt • • Cleopatra was having problems with her brother • Caesar help Cleopatra onto the throne and Cleopatra gave birth to his child • Even though he had a large army, people still considered him a traitor DictatorforLife • He met all the senates that went against him • Instead of executing the soldiers he pardoned everyone To all these aristocratic people felt very much insulted • • Cato unwilling to live in a world led by Caesar, committed suicide • Everyone resented him because he acted kinda like a king • Aristocrats were banding together to kill him • He was aware that something was going on TheAssassinationofCaesar • MarcusJuniusBrutus was Caesar’s really good friend • In reality Cassius was the true plotting person • He was under command of Pompey and eventually forced to surrender under Ceasar • This guy was a big player in the conspiracy • On the Ides of March, aka March 15 Caesar died and the aristocrats then went out to public and proclaimed that • Rome was free again • Rome was tyrant clean again, but the public was completely silence • Then the public actually didn’t hate Caesar the way Senates hated him EndoftheRomanRepublic • The conspirators thought that they freed Rome • Greeks weren’t interested, they were like: Yea cool. • Romans were like: Yes we’re free again! • Modern scholars said: When they were poor, they robbed other people. When they were rich, they robbed each other • There was a public funeral for Caesar • They opened his will, and he left a lot of money for every single person in Rome • He left all of his property to be turned into parks for the Roman people • Everyone had enough money to take like a 3 month vacation • At this point the conspirators got driven out of Rome • Mark Anthony replaced him, which is like Caesar 2.0 • The rest of money in his will were all given to Caesar’s nephew, Octavianus • Julius Caesar adopted a young boy at the age of 18 as his heir • So Octavianus inherited a huge amount of money, and when he asked Mark Anthony for the money, he didn’t give Octavianus anything His birth parents told him to let it go, and so as a 18 year old boy he • listened • He went around to people and wanted to collect support to take revenge for his father • Mark Anthony couldn’t kill him because that was a bad political move • Octavian makes a huge bluff about, gathering 24k of soldiers and told the senates to make a new council and that he’ll fight Mark Antony • Senates first rejected his offer, but later they gave him a new option: they gave him a position in a council to fight against Mark Antony • So when Mark Antony’s time was up as council, Octavian went up with his troops, 2 new councils and took over • Octavian was insulted for not given more power/responsibilities (hes only 19) • For some reason Octavian switches sides, and joins Mark Antony and enters Rome with their army and seizes control • They form the second 3 men gang with Anthony, Octavian and Lepidus of Africa Thesecondtriumvirate:3Mengang • These men became dictators • They put up proscriptions, and executed everyone against them • They started attacking all the assassins on Caesar, specifically Brutus and Cassius • Antony got East, Octavian got West, and Lepidus got Africa • Antony had much more power than Octavian • Octavian had a problem, he doesn’t know what to do with the soldiers that needed to be retired and he had no parting gifts (pensions) so he couldn’t do those • There were also uprises he needed to deal with as well • He created a propaganda machine, stuff like parades, statues, etc. • It was a carefully crafted scheme to defame Mark Anthony while hoping to gain the admiration
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