Greek presence opened the door to a later orientalizing" period. Consolidation of settlements such as corinth and athens. The foundation for the development of the city-states (poleis) Wealth = land; resources were the beginnings of money; wealthy class became. Aristocracy: (greek word) rule/power by the best," implies that they"re the upper classes because they"re the best; so both wealth and pedigree/family association. Forced many to relocate: as wealthy class acquired land. In asia minor, but also to the west. Beginning of archaic period, greek world covers asia minor, mainland, crete, and southern. Establishments of trading ties abroad: e. g. , phoenicians to the east. Dark age ceases to be dark; invention of alphabet, and literacy; so recorded documents of various sorts: inscriptions. Not wide diffusion of literacy, in which everyone knew how to read and write; certain people learned to read and write. One argument: elite reminding everyone that they"re elite, because they can read them and the others can"t.