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Lecture 1- Introduction to Rome .docx

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
Alexis Dolphin

th January 20  / 2013  Lecture 1: Introduction To Rome Rome c. 509-338 BCE - Roman attitudes seem more like common sense to us whereas the Greek ideals seem bizarre - Greeks are far more advanced than the Romans by the year 509 753-509 BCE: Regal Period - Ruled by Kings 509-31 BCE: Republic - “Public Possession: - All citizens have equal share of empire, no King 31 BCE - 476AD: Empire/Imperial - Rome was always an Empire, but at this point there was an “Emperor” o Different than a King Italy: - Natural resources o Great place where to start a civilization as apposed to Greece which is shit o Lowlands to grow grain, mountains that have timbers, volcanic mountains that provide minerals o Can feed/provide for a much larger population / square mile than Greece - Apennines o Mountain range that goes all the way down Italy and even into Sicily o Clockwise wind makes it hard for the Greeks to sail to Italy because of storms and such  Italy gets cutoff from all Civilizations - Eastern vs. Western Italy  Wind also makes for different rain patters • Lots of rain in West Italy, dry in East Italy  Alps also cut off Italy from the Northern Civilizations th January 20  / 2013  Greeks and Phoenicians (c. 800) - 3 main cultures dominant in Italy o 1. Greece  Colonization from the Greeks when it became overpopulated o 2. Phoenicians  Eastern Mediterranean  Didn’t inhabit Italy but traded with them  Made their presence felt through trade o 3. Etruscans  Powerful The Etruscans: 700-480 - League of 12 Regions - Etruria and Rome - Their decline is directly related to the Roman incline - Culture/Language was lost and absorbed by the Romans - Tremendously influential to the Romans o Art, architecture o Etruscans imitate the Greeks - Etruria at one point absorbed Rome and was a city in their league - Loose collection of cities - Hepatoscopy o Examining the liver o Believed you could predict the future by slaughtering an animal (bull) and looking at discolorations of the liver Orientalizing Period (7 – 6 ) th -Anything to the east - Romans were impressed by Etruscan architecture that was an imitation of Greek but they were unaware of that - Trading raw materials to the Phoenicians for finished luxury items (ex. GreekArt) Etruscan Tombs: Tarquinia th January 20  / 2013  - Buried underground - Bodies put into coffins that are put into a bay into the side of the tomb wall - There were Greek-like images, like depictions of a symposium, on their tombs but it is unknown if they really know what these pictures are - Majority of Greek Pots in museums were not found in Greece there were usually found in Italy owned by non-Greeks - Etruscan ideals of women were different o Men and women together, equal in stature Villanovans: - c 1000-720 - Urnfields o Cremate their dead and put them in Urns o Different culture than the Etruscans o Urns that look like huts - Rome, c. 900 o Developed out of Villanovan society  Huts from Urnfields give us an idea of what Rome may have looked like in its early years - Distinguishable pottery - Wore Toga’s o Toga pins were luxury goods therefore shows how it wasn’t a very rich society Romulus and Remus;Aeneas: Numitor --------Amulius | | Rhea Silvia = Mars | | / \ Romulus Remus - Aeneas was a Trojan hero who survived Roman attack th January 20  / 2013  - Homer statesAeneas goes off to found a second Troy - Aking of a nearby city was deposed by his brother (Amulius threw Numitor in prison) and killed all his sons o Doesn’t kill the daughter and says she will be a virgin for the rest of her life (Rhea Silvia) o God impregnates Rhea Silvia and Amulius wants to kill the offspring but puts them in a river o Wash up on the shore and raised by a Wolf o Found by a Shepard who raises them on his own - Romulus and Remus put their father Numitor on back on the thrown and then go and found their own city - Get in a fight and Romulus kills Remus o Says anyone who wants to be apart of the city can be apart of it o So the people who join are runaway slaves, criminals etc. (Only males joined) - Romulus has a festival and invites neighbouring people and tells them to bring their daughters o Romulus and his band of wack jobs kidnap the girls and make them their wives o The women apparently fall in love with them and then Rome gets populated - Romulus then disappears o One story says to heaven and one says he gets teared apart by other Romans who hated him 753-509: Regal Period - 7 Kings o Vowed they would never have another King o Romulus is the first King of Rome o Kings get worse and worse o Every single king is responsible for one particular culture change - 7 x 35 = 245 o 35 years is often the time frame people ruled, composed etc. - Schematization o Arranging historical facts in a grid that doesn’t exist in reality  Romans did this with their Kings  Similarly in the way we talk about decades th January 20  / 2013  - 509 is also the year that Athens becomes a democracy 7 Kings of Rome: 1. Romulus (753-716): Founder of Rome - Gets accredtited to many great Roman ideals mainly because he was the first king 2. Numa Pompilius (715-672): - Religious 3. Tullus Hostilius (672-640) - Roman style army 4.Ancus Marcius (640-616) 5. L. Tarquinius Priscus (616-578) - Greek from Eturuia: Tanaquil (his wife) - assassinated - Servius Tullius (578-534) o Tanaquil’s lover 6. Servius Tanaquil 7. L. Tarquinius Superbus: (534-509) - Lucretia, Sextus Tarquinius; Junius Brutus - His wife was Servius Tullius’daughter
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