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Nov 18th - The Crisis of the Polis.docx

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
Alexis Dolphin

th Nov 18  / 2013 Read: pp. 30­42, 61­67, 108­132 The Crisis of the Polis (404-338) - After the Peloponnesian war o Nothing is the same after - World War 1 o Europe was the main power and fought each other for the first time  Like the Greeks o Mass slaughter o People wanted to go back to normal after  It was never the same again - Macedon - Theme of Crisis o Change vs. Continuity o Shifting hegemony o Economic disruption o Change in classic ideas of the polis o Military Innovation - Spartan Hegemony (404-371) o Spartan Empire  Knocks downAthenian walls and make their own government  Didn’t really punish them in anyways  Tbh they really didn’t do anything  Go out and take over the Islands that were apart of the Athenian empire  People are pissed at Sparta  Starts to get out that Sparta used Persian money • Sparta panics and wants to attack Persia • Don’t really get anywhere • Persia starts to fundAthens now • Spartan allies turn against them o Thebes, Corinth, Greek Islands  Sparta looses their morals with money • Spartan soldiers see a different world outside of Sparta and they like it • They have a problem keeping their soldiers in tact th Nov 18  / 2013 o Persian War o Peace - Athens and the Thirty Tyrants o Pro- Spartans, Moderates, Democrats  Start killing people they don’t like  Executions without trials  People are scared  Fighting b/w democrats and 30 tyrants o Refugees in Thebes o Vengeance killings o Amnesty  Sparta basically says get along or were gunna fight  Things start to calm down in Athens and democracy slowly starts to build - Economic Pressure o Disruption vs. Recovery of Economy o Influx of Persian money o Slow recovery - Military Changes o More mercenaries, less emphasis on citizen-soldier o Rise in light armed troops o March of the 10,000  401  Persia, the brother of the King decided he wanted to rule • Called in 10,000 Greek mercenaries to try and take over Persia  Wont a few battles  The brother died so the Greeks just went home because they had no reason to fight  This showed Persian weekness, the Greeks had very little casualities o Men didn’t have farm skills after the war  War skills didn’t come in handy in civilian life - Theban Hegemony o Theban “revolution”  Epaminondas and Pelopidas o 371 Battle of Leuctra  Spartans had lost their first battle th Nov 18  / 2013 o New tactics, Sacred Band o Invasion of Peloponnese  Marched inAthenian League and Hegemony  Freed the slaves o 362 Battle of Mantinea  Thebes beatsAthens but not really  Stalemate - Second Athenian League and Hegemony o Relaxed restrictions and tribute requirements o Many old subjects rejoin o 357-355 Social War - New Power Growing in the North o Macedonia o Phillip Greek Drama - Playwrights were the healers/priests basically who broughtAthenians together o Allowed them to face their fears - Origins of Tragedy o Originated form choir o Lyrics sung by a choir  In honour of a god usually  Dionysus • Wine/ecstasy  Sang about Dionysus then someone came out as the god and he was the “protagonist” and another would step up and sing back and forth and he was the “antagonist” o “Theater” = the place to look o “Orchestra” = place for dancing o Chorus sings and dances about the action in the play o Altar was for the religious sacrifices as apart of the theatrical performances  Plays would happen during religious sacrifices  Begin and end with a sacrifice
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