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Peloponnesian War

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
Shauna Burke

1 Peloponnesian War: 431-405 • inaccurate b/c war ranged across whole of Greek world • end of classical period • Athenians (richer, more man power) vs Spartans (xenophobic- didn’t want to leave community) • assumption: last 1-2 years • allAthenians (i.e. farms) retreated into city, protected by huge walls- no way Spartans had experience in destroying these walls; ran along major highway • battle b/w elephant vs whale; 2 mighty powers • Sparta wants to strip Athens of allies (offensive) • Athenians don’t want to invade Peloponnese & fight Sparta (defensive) • 1st year:Athenians retreated, Spartans left • 2nd year:Athenians retreated again, Spartans left • tried to cut off supply, couldn’t b/c being shipped by boat to harbour • provoke them: attack other part of empire Archidamian War: (431-421) • Plague (429): terrible toll • Mytilene (427) • Pylos (425): Spartans soldiers captured alive, kept byAthenians; Spartans offered peace • Peace (421) Truce (421-415): • - Alcibiades: tries to set upAthenian Alliance (418)- goes to various members (Sparta’s allies- joinAthens) • Sicilian Expedition: (415-413) 2 - takeAthenian fleet to Sicily - off to bad start- night before fleet=someone went around & disfigured statues - convincesAthenians to pursue other - Alcibiades: switches sides, to Sparta - Athenian soldiers=captured (thought they would be victorious, become rich) - Sparta declares war onAthens - > go to Persian king & ask him for money to build fleet to defeatAthens - Persian king: agreed to give money, if Ionia was given to him, Sparta agreed - originallyAthens & Sparta fought vs Persia, now, roles=reversed - polis: some in favour ofAthenian/Spartan sides - at one point Athens was so desperate, they agreed to end democracy & give 400 men power b/c they thought they would lose the war Sparta wins (405)-Athenian fleet captured- while on beach - suspicion thatAthenian naval commanders planned this to end war- surrender of behalf of Athens, don’t slaughter Athenians - Spartans lenient:Athenians allowed to have 5 warships, keep main city, protection by Sparta (why to be thought to be planned surrender) Effects: • Sparta became supreme leader of Greece • trade & agriculture=supremely reduced poverty became widespread • • almost all laws were broken • classical period ended & almost all culture is destroyed; Late Classical period begins • Spartans had to fight to get Ionia back • communities were teared apart • many soldiers could not go back to civilian lifestyle Socrates: (469-399) • lower classAthenian- father- stone cutter, mother- midwife 3 • life spans Peloponnesian war • married, had few sons • talked about wisdom
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